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We^moreland County 




A Short and Bright Day 
in Its History 


^. James Monroe 

2. Gforge Washington 

3. Rout. E. Lee 

4 Richard Henry Lee 

5. Tamrs Madison 

(5. Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee 

7. Francis Lightfoot Lee 

1653- I9'2 

Westmoreland County 


A Short Chapter and Bright Day in Its History 

Addresses Delivered by Lawrence Washington, Esq., 
Rev, Randolph Harrison McKim, D. D., LL. D , 
and Rev. George Wm. Heale, D. D. , at 

Montross, Va., May 3, 1910. 

And he said, 'Draiu not nigh hither: put off 
thy shoes from off thy feet; for the place 
nuhereon thou standest is holy ground. 

— Exodus, Chap, iii, v. 5. 


Richmond, Virginia: 








The symphony of a grand fiasi is indeed heard 

when the hand of memory siveeps 

07'er such golden strings. 


"The history of a people is, often, best preserved by their laws 
and civic institutions; and nothing adds more to the true glory of 
a nation than narratives of its wise and impartial administration 
of justice. The fame of the Areopagus survived the military glory 
of Athens; and while the battle of Marathon, the passage of the 
Hellespont and the victory of Salamis were treated as fables at 
Rome,* the memory of the Grecian Laws still lived in the twelve 
tables of the Capital of the Universe. "f — Preface to fourth volume 
Call's (Va.) Reports. 

* Liv. lib. 28, 43 ; Juv. sat. XI., 174 etc. 

f Adams's Antiq: ICC- 5 Gibb. Rom. Emp. 308. 


From painting by Col. Trumbull. 


Westmoreland County, Virginia. 


Westmoreland Called "The Athens of Virginia." 

A. Pleasant and Noted Day at Monteoss, the County Seat. 
Brilliant Addresses by Lawrence Washington, Eev, 
Eandolph Harrison McKim, D. D., LL.D., 
AND Rev, George Wm. Beale, D. D. 

Westmoreland county, Virginia, was taken from the older 
colony of Northumberland by an Act of the "Grand Assembly/' 
July, 1653. 

Westmoreland has been called "The Athens of Virginia." Some 
of the most renowned men of this country have been born within 
her borders. Among these may be mentioned Washington, Eiehard 
Henry Lee, and his three brothers — Thomas, Francis and Arthur : 
General Henry Lee, Monroe, and the late Buslirod Washington. 

President Monroe was born at the head of Monroe's Creek. 
Chantilly, situated upon the Potomac, now in ruins, was once the 
residence of Eiehard Henry Lee. Upon the same stream, a few 
miles up, is Stratford, the family seat of the Lees for many gene- 
rations. The birthplace of Washington was destroyed previous to 
the Eevolution. It stood about half a mile from the junction of 
Pope's Creek with the Potomac. — Hoive's Historij of Virginia, 
page 507. 

The fac simile in the engraving of the record of the birth of 
Washington is from the family record in the Bible which belonged 
to his mother. The original entry is supposed to have been made 
by her. This old family Bible is in the possession of George W. 
Bassett, Esq., of Farmington, Hanover county, who married a 
grandniece of Washington. It is in the quarto form, much dilapi- 
dated by age, and with the title page missing. It is covered l)y the 
striped Virginia cloth, anciently much nsed. The portrait of Wash- 
ington, which we give, is engraved from the original painting bv 
his aid. Colonel John Trumbull. When Lafayette was on his visit 
to this country he pronounced it the best likeness of Washington 
he had seen. It was taken at the time of life when thev wore both 
together in the armv of the Revolution. — Idem, page 508. 


We clip from the Northern Neck Neivs, Warsaw, Va., Friday, 
May 20, 1910, the following extract from its correspondent: 

Big Day at Montkoss. 

Brillunil l:<pcak-ers (Did Di.sliiif/jilslied Assemblage. 

Tuesday, May ;5rd, at 1 P. M., Avas the occasion at Montross of 
presenting and accepting the portraits, tablets and statues so gen- 
erously given to Westmoreland county, and in public recognition 
of the gifts. 

After a delightful luncheon by the ladies of Westmoreland. 
Eev. Dr. E. H. McKim, of Washington, D. C. ; Eev. Dr. G. W. 
Beale, of Westmoreland; Lawrence Washington, Library of Con- 
gress; Hon. William Mayo, and Hon. C. Conway Baker delivered 
patriotic and striking addresses. 

They were met by the honorable Board of Supervisors, the 
Washington and Lee Chapter of the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, the members of the Westmoreland Camp Confederate 
Veterans, the patriotic order of Sons of America, the officers, 
teachers and scholars of public and private schools, and patriotic 
citizens generally. The occasion was a pleasant one, and full of 
intense historical interest to Westmoreland people. The flower and 
chivalry of the county assembled there. The brave and patriotic 
manhood and the presence and grace of cultured and lovely woman- 
hood made it brilliant. All felt the silent and potent influence of 
the Washington and Lee Chapter of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy (Mrs. George W. Murphy, president, and Mrs. B. P> 
Atwill, secretary), as they came in the court room in a body. They 
gave cchil and delight to the pageantry and brill inncy of the occa- 

Mrs. Charles W. Harris presided at the organ and led the rendi- 
tion of Southern songs and national anth(>ms and hymns. She is 
an accomplished scholar of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore. Mrs. 
Lee Crutchfield and Misses Atwill assisted, and adding their. lovely 
voices to the lovely voice of Mrs. Harris, made the most delightful 
and thrilling music. We owe much to these ladies. 

Hon. William Mayo, president of the Board of Supervisors, 
called the meeting to order and presided. Mr. Mayo is proud of 
the fame of Virginia and Westmoreland. Their history is glorious 
to him. He does not, however, supinely and repiningly dream of 
the past, but as a citizen and president of the Board is a man of 
genuine progress and believes in present and future achievement 
for the betterment of his people and locality, and- is doing as much 




^ V 


for good roads and development along industrial, educational and 
agricultural lines as any man in the State, and has the confidoiu'c 
and esteem of all his people. He is an easy, forceful, fluent 

The Judge of the Court made the following report: 

I have the honor to report and turn over to you — 

1. General George Washington, hero of Yorktown, "Father of 
his Country," of whom Governor Henry Lee (Light Horse Harry), 
appointed by Congress to pronounce the eulogy on his death, said : 
"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men"; first President of the United States; painted after Harding, 
and donated and painted by (Mrs. Jolm S. Bonebrake) IMiss M. 
B. Snyder. 

2. James Monroe, fifth President of the United States, author 
of the great Monroe Doctrine, the foundation of our foreign policy ;. 
painted by Willis Pepoon, Eichmond, Va., after Vanderlyn — color- 
ing after Stuart — and donated by Mr. P. H. Mayo, Eichmond, Va. 

3. William Pitt, Lord Chatham, donated in 1768 by Edmond 
Jennings, Esq., of London, England, to the gentlemen of the county 
of Westmoreland; figure full length, addressing the British Parlia- 
ment. This historic painting once embellished the hall of the House 
of Delegates, Eichmond, Va. (See Acts of the General Assembly 
of Virginia, 1901-1902, page 676.) 

4. General E. E. Lee, of Stratford, the '^'brightest star in the 
galaxy of Anglo-Saxon greatness," in full uniform, figure full 
length; painted by E. F. Andrews, and donated by Colonel E. E. 
Lee, Jr., Fairfax county, his grandson. 

5. Judge Bushrod Washington, favorite nephew of General 
Washington, devisee of Mount Vernon, his books and library; As- 
sociate Justice Supreme Court of the United States; painted by 
Estella Gross, Washington, D. C, after Plarding, and donated by 
the Mount Vernon Washingtons through Major E. W. Hunter, sec- 
retary of Confederate Eecords, who married Miss Lila Washington. 

6. General Thomas Stuart Garnett (of Chancellorsville fame). 
Confederate States Army; painted and donated by Mrs. Eoberta 
Garnett Morris, Fredericksburg, Va., his sister. 

7. Colonel Henry T. Garnett; painted and donated by ^[rs. 
Eoberta Garnett Morris, Fredericksburg, Va., his daughter. 

8. General E. L. T. Beale, the gallant and dashing Brigadier of 
Cavalry, Confederate States Army, and member of United States 


Congress before and after the War Between the States; donated 
by his family, 

9. Judge Richard Parker, Supreme Court of Appeals of Vir- 
ginia ; donated by James E. Keene, New York ; painted by Charles 
S. Forbes, Boston, now Paris, France. 

10. Judge John Critcher, Colonel, Confederate States Army, 
member of Congress and Circuit Judge; painted by Miss Cathe- 
rine Carter Critcher, Paris School of Arts, and donated by Mrs. 
Nannie C. Gatewood, Washington, D. C, and herself. 

11. Governor Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee, Governor of 
Virginia; General United States Army, and member of Congress 
(eulogist on the death of Washington), and "the Eupert of the 
Eevolution,'^ father of General E. E. Lee; painted by B. West 
Clinedinst, Pawling, Duchess county, New York, after Stuart, and 
donated by General G. W. Custis Lee, his grandson. 

12. Francis Lightfoot Lee of Stratford, member of Congress 
and signer of Declaration of Independence ; painted by Willis Pe 
poon, Eichmond, Va., after Peale, and donated by Dr. Eichard H. 
Stuart, of Stratford. 

13. Eichard Henry Lee of Chantilly (born at Stratford), mem 
her of the first Congress at Philadelphia, September 5, 1774, "the 
Cicero of the House" ; author and mover of the famous "Westmore- 
land Eesolutions" at Leedstown, Va., February 27, 1766 (Judge 
Eichard Parker presiding), passed by the patriots of Westmoreland 
protesting against the Stamp Act^ and signer of the Declaration of 
Independence; author of "The Committee of Correspondence,^' 
from which sprung the Union of the Colonies ; and mover, on the 
7th day of June, 1776. in the Continental Congress, "that these 
united Colonies are and ought to be free and independent States" ; 
painted by Mrs. Montague (nee Taliaferro), after Peale, and 
donated by Joseph Bryan, Eichmond, Va. 

14. William Lee, of Stratford, Lord Mayor of London, Eng- 
land, and United States Commissioner to the Court of Berlin, and 
United States representative to Holland; painted by Charles S. 
Forbes, Boston, now Paris, France; donated by James E. Keene, 
New York. 

15. Arthur Lee, of Stratford, member of Congress, United 
States Minister to the Court of Versailles; the scholar, the writer, 
the philosopher, and the negotiator of the treaty of commerce and 
alliance with the French Court; painted by Harreotte Lee Monta- 
gue (nee Taliaferro), Eichmond, Va.; donated by William H. Lee, 



president of the Merchants'-Laelede JSTational Bank. St. Louis. Mo. ; 
Blair Lee and Jolui F. Lee, his brother. 

16. Mural tablet (polished Italian marble, letters black and 
gold) to Taliaferro Hunter, Superintendent of Schools of West- 
moreland county, and educator; donated by the citizens of West- 
moreland county through Miss Lizzie Baker. 

17. Mural tablet, polished Italian marble, letters black and 
gold, richly engraved by Gaddess Brothers Company, Baltimore, 
Md., to Joseph Cliristopher Wheelwright and Samuel Francis At- 
will, Virginia Military Institute cadet heroes who fell in the battle 
of New Market in 186-i; donated by J. H. Wheelwright, vice-presi- 
dent of the Consolidation Company, Continental Trust Building, 
Baltimore, Md. 

18. Eeplica of the Houdon statue of Washington in the Capitol 
at Richmond, Va., and fluted pedestal, manufactured by P. P. Cap- 
roni & Bro., Boston, Mass. ; donated by Lloyd Washington, 1842 
Indiana avenue, Chicago, 111. 

19. American Eagle, handsomely hand carved in wood, gilded 
with fine gold, 3H to 4 feet from tip to tip ; donated by the Mary- 
land, Delaware and Virginia Eailway Company, Pier Light street. 
Baltimore, Md. 

"Poor is the country that boasts no heroes, but beggared is that 
people who, having them, forgets." 

Respectfully reported. 

Mr. Mayo then introduced Lawrence Washington, Library of 
Congress, and late of Mt. Vernon. Mr. Mayo was very happy in 
presenting his old schoolmate to present Justice Bushrod Washing- 
ton's portrait, Supreme Court United States. Mr. Lawrence Wash- 
ington is a very cultured and refined looking gentleman — cleanly 
shaved, trim in figure and dress, strong, handsome face and eyes. 
His address was a finished one and very strong and eloquent. Judge 
Washington was a very much more distinguished man in his day 
than is now generally apprehended, and this address, which will be 
published, will be an interesting chapter in the literature of the 
history of the country. It was a matter of regret that his son, 
Richard B. Washington, a rising and distinguished young attorney 
of Alexandria, with him, and who has just returned from a two 
years' service at Vice-Consul to Planca in Germany, had to leave 
for the steamer before he could be pressed into service for the oc- 


Hon. C. Conway Baker then introduced Eev. Dr. Randolph Har- 
rison McKini, Church of the Epiphany, Washington, D. C, to pre- 
sent the entire gallery. Mr. Baker, at all times fluent and pleasing, 
never made a happier or more delightful speech in his life. It 
was generally conceded that it was a gem in delivery and oratory, 
and adds another laurel to liis fame and delight to his friends. 

Dr. McKim's address was a masterpiece. It was one of the 
grandest tributes to Westmoreland ever delivered, and one of the 
brightest chapters in her glorious history. The speech of Lord 
Brougham on Washington was adopted in the history of Westmore- 
land by the historian Howe in his "History of Virginia." This 
tribute of Dr. McKim to Westmoreland's Washington and other 
heroes may well be treasured like Lord Brougham's in its history. 
Dr. McKim is a brilliant and eloquent speaker. A man of the 
most imposing and distinguished presence, charming personality, 
voice clear, resonant, attractive in volume and tone, he simply 
thrilled us as he rang out. We feel prouder than ever of Westmore- 

Mr. Mayo then, in a happy manner, presented Dr. Beale to ac- 
cept. Dr. Bcale, a son of Westmoreland, truly exalted his county 
and people, their achievements and memories. He urged them to 
keep rekindled the flres of patriotism on the altars of their country. 
He was truly eloquent, and his appeals from a fine exordium to per- 
oration touched us and won us. As a brilliant historian, scholar 
and learned divine, we always wish to hear from him. 

T am told that the Board o^ Supervisors will endeavor to print 
al] these addresses in pamphlet form for distribution. 

As the choir were delightfully rendering ''Auld Lang Svne," 
the driver hurried Dr. McKim to start on his pilgrimage to Wake- 
field and Stratford, the birthplaces of the immortal Washinoion 
and Lee. At Wakefield, Mrs. Wilson and Miss Etta were very polite 
and cordial, and at Stratford D". and^Mrs. Stuart were also very 
polite and cordial. After visUing these consecrated shrines he 
reached Leed^town a little after 8 P. M., and after a nice s-upper 
at Mr. Baxter's and cordial entertainment as a guest, took the 
steniner. Tliis ended his visit to the Northern Neck, where this 
brilliant man had flashed through its classic section like a brilliant 
meteor in the clear heavens, leaving behind with those people the 
most delightful memories of himself. The trip was a strenuous 
one for a man seeking to recruit himself from recent illness. Dur- 
ing the few days of his visit he preached two beautiful sermons — 
one at St. John's. Warsaw, the other at St. John's Tappahannock. 
He delivered two brilliant addresses — one at Warsaw, the other at 


While resting on the steamer that night in the little quiet town 
of Leedstown, it was recalled that there, in February, 1766, after 
Richard Henry Lee had organized the "Westjnoreland Association" 
of patriots, that he wrote there (the famous Westmoreland resolu- 
tions) a direct protest against the Stamp Act, Judge Richard 
Parker presiding over the meeting. Although Xorth Carolina 
claims the glory to have shed the first blood for Colonial liberty 
at Alamance in 1771, and boasts of the Mecklenburg resolutions 
(May 20, 1775) which ante-date the Declaration of Independence, 
yet it must be remembered to the glory of old Westmoreland that 
more than nine years before the Mecklenburg resolutions, and more 
than ten years before the Declaration of Independence, and one 
hundred years after Nathaniel Baoon, these patriots of old West- 
moreland at Leedstown were the first to rekindle the latent and 
hidden rfires of the American Revolution through Richard Henry 
Lee — a great historical fact which should ncvrr l)o forgotten by 

Richard Henry Lee. chairman of the Conimittee of Congress to 
report on his motion in Congress "That the LTnited Colonies are 
and ought to be free and independent States," etc., on June 10th 
was called from Philadelphia home to see his ill wife. This acci- 
dental sickness of his wife deprived him of the signal honor of 
being the author as well as mover of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, thus by his conduct demonstrating to the world that loyalty 
and devotion to wife, family and home are dearer and sweeter than 
earthly honors — a virtue the highest, sublimest and supremest 
known to mankind. — Correspondent Northern NecJc News. 

20. Since the above report of the contributions to the gallery of 
the court room, a costly and beautiful tablet in letters of black 
and gold has been given by ]\Irs. Emily Steelman Fisher, a daugh- 
ter of the American Revolution, General Lafayette Chapter, i\.t- 
lantic City, N". J. The tablet gives the full text of "Westmoreland 
Articles" offered by Richard Henry Lee at Leedstown, Va., and 
passed by the patriots of Westmoreland on 27th of February. 1766. 
"A signal gun of warning and preparation, whose clear, reverber- 
ating echoes heralded the Declaration of Independence, and Avas a 
prelude to all the patriotic guns fi-om Lexington to Yorktown." 

31. .Another beautiful tal)let of letters black and a^old givins: 
the text of the Resolutions of the Westmoreland patriots and the 
Westmoreland Committee of Safety passed 1774 and 1775. when 
the Boston harbor in our sister colony of ^lassachusetts Bay was 
locked up and Lord Dunmore seized the i)owder in the magazine 
in Williamsburg, has been given by Dr. Algernon S. (rarnett, of 


Hot Springs, Arkansas, a son of Westmoreland and brother of 
General Thomas S. Garnett, a dashing officer killed at Chancellors- 

These two tablets were unveiled at Montross May 9, 1911. 

22. Replica of the statue of Chief Justice Marshall from the 
original in marble in the Boston Athenaeum; donated by Bush 
Wilkins. Esq. Virginia gave Washington, who with the sword led 
the armies of the Eevolution, and Marshall with the pen expounded 
the Constitution of this great Republic. Colonel Thomas Marshall, 
the father of the Chief Justice, was born in Westmoreland, and the 
historic county is, therefore, the grandmother of John Marshall. 

23. Statue of R. E. Lee (P. P. Caproni & Bro., sculptors, Bos- 
ton, Mass.,), donated by Bushrod Washington Pomeroy, Esq. 

"An angel's heart, an angel's mouth, 
Not Homer's could alone for me 
Hymn v^ell the great Confederate South, 
Virginia first, and Lee." 

Historical Events Commemorated by Tablets Unveiled at 


Lieutetmnt-Governor Ellyson Presides Over Interesting 

Montross, Va., May 9, 1911. 

Two tablets, commemorating historical events, were dedicated 
here to-day with interesting exercises. 

The exercises began in the early afternoon when William 
Mayo, chairman of the Board of Supervisors, called the meeting to 
order and designated J. Taylor Ellyson, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Virginia, to preside. 

Mr. Ellyson, accompanied by his wife, who is the president of 
the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, ar- 
rived here early this morning on the Commodore Maury, flagship 
of the Virginia oyster navy. Mr. Ellyson expressed his pleasure 
at being present and being permitted to preside over the meeting, a 
duty which he performed with grace and dignity. 

T. R. B. Wright, judge of the judicial circuit, then presented 
the tablets to the county of Westmoreland in a ringing speech, 
which created srreat enthusiasm. 


As the portraits were unveiled the audience arose and sang 

Historical addresses were delivered by Frank P. Brent and 
Walter E. Hathaway, of Lancaster ooimty, which brought the exer- 
cises to a close. 

Judge Wright, accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Ellyson and Mrs. 
Wright, visited Stratford, the birthplace of the Lees, and other 
historical places in the vicinity this afternoon. 

On one of the tablets is the text ol^ the famous "Westmoreland 
Resolutions," offered by Eichard Henry Lee, and passed by the 
patriots of that day at Leedstown, February 27, 1766, thus outdat- 
ing by nine years the Mecklenburg, N. C, resolutions, and by ten 
years the Declaration of Independence. 

The other tablet bears the resolutions of Eichard Henry Lee, 
passed at the Westmoreland county court house June 22, 1774, ex- 
pressing sympathy with and tenderinsf aid to Boston because of the 
locking up of that harbor. Also on this tablet appear the resolu- 
tions of the Westmoreland County Committee of Safety, passed 
May 23, 1744, denouncing Lord Dunmore, the Governor, for seizing 
the powder in the magazine of Williamsburg, Ya. — The Times- 
Dispatch. Eichmond, Va. 


Tablets Unveiled in Memory op Westmoreland Patriots. 
Gift to Virginia County. 

Moniross Celchrates Drafting of Besolutions hy Richard Henry 
Lee — Licutenani-Governor Presides. 

Montross. Va., May 9, 1911. 

With imposing ceremonies and in the presence of a distinguished 
assemblage, two large and costly tablets commemorating important 
events in the early history of Westmoreland county were unveiled 
in the courthouse here this afternoon. These tablets were secured 
through the aid of Judge T. E. B. Wright, who for several years has 
urged the practice of adorning the walls of the court rooms in his 
circuits with the portraits of prominent men of each county and 
with tablets commemorating notable historic events. 

J. Taylor Ellyson, Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Ellyson. the president of the Associafion for the 
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, presided at the exercises. 
Judge T. E. B. Wright presented the tablets. 


Historical addresses were delivered by Frank P. Brent and Wal- 
ter E. Hathaway, of Lancaster, and by Dr. George W. Beale, of 
Westmoreland. The tablets were received in an address by Conway 
Baker, Commonwealth's Attorney of Westmoreland. 


The first tablet commemorates the formation of the Westmore- 
land Association of Patriots at Leedstown, on February ^7, 1766; 
and the resolutions adopted by them at that time. These resolu- 
tions denounce the Stamp Act as a violation of the natural and 
chartered rights of British America, pledge the membership of the 
Association to resist its execution and bind them to defend each 
other with their lives and fortunes. 

These famous resolutions, written by Eichard Henry Lee, were 
f jimd in 1847 among the papers of Mr. Henry Lee, at one time 
Consul-General to Algiers, by Dr. John Samuel Carr, of South 
Carolina, then residing in Maryland, by whom they were delivered 
to John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of Presi- 
dent Polk, who transmitted them to William Cabell Rives, presi- 
dent of the Virginia Historical Society, in Mdiose archives they are 
still preserved. 

They are believed to be the first resolutions adopted by any 
local association in the American colonies against the Stamp Act. 
The tablet is a present to the county of Westmoreland from Mrs. 
Emily Steelman Fisher, a native of New Jersey, but now residing 
at Peedville. Mrs. Fisher is a member of the General Lafayette 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, at Atlantic 


The other tablet commemorates the acts and resolves of the 
Westmoreland patriots at their meetings held at the Courthouse on 
June 22, 1774, and January 31, 1775, and the resolutions of the 
Westmoreland Committee of Safety, on May 23, 1775. These reso- 
lutions assert the right of inhabitants of the American colonies to 
be taxed solely by their Colonial assemblies, composed of members 
of their own choosing; reprobate the act of Parliament closing Bos- 
ton harbor ; pledge the citizens of the county not to use any article 
imported into the colony from England and to export no pro- 
ducts from the colony to England; denounce the action of Lord 
Dunmore, the Colonial Governor, in seizing the powder in the 
magazine at Williamsburg; and in appointing Richard Henry Lee 


and Eichard Lee deputies to the convention soon thereafter to as- 
semble in Eichmond instruct them to inform the convention that 
the patriots of Westmoreland are firm in their determination to 
stand or fall with the liberties of their country. 

The tablet commemorating these events in the history of West- 
moreland is a present from Dr. Algernon S. Garnett, a native of 
this county, but now a prominent physician in Arkansas. Dr. Gar- 
nett was a surgeon in the Confederate ISTavy, and his brother, Gen- 
eral Thomas Stuart Garnett, was killed at the battle of Chancel- 

The walls of the court room here are covered with the portraits 
of the great men that Westmoreland has produced. In less than 
one hundred years this county produced George Washington, Eich- 
ard Henry Lee, Thomas Ludwell Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, Eich- 
ard Lee, Arthur Lee, James Monroe, and Eobert E. Lee, while 
James Madison was born just across the border, at Port Conway, 
in King George county, which was carved from Westmoreland. — 
Correspondent Baltimore Sun. 

Tablets to the Patriots of Historic Westmoreland. 

"Westmoreland county contains more historic ground than 
many an entire State," an old resident of Baltimore who was 
familiar with his native Virginia often remarked. The tablets 
just placed in the Westmoreland Courthouse, which were unveiled 
with due ceremony on Tuesday, direct attention anew to the county 
that was the birthplace of Washington and the home of the Lees. 

As early as 1766 an association of patriots was formed at 
Leedstown to resist the imposition of the Stamp Tax; and resolu- 
tions, written by Eichard Henry Lee, were adopted, denouncing 
the Stamp Act of the British Parliament, pledging the members 
to resist its enforcement, and binding them to defend each other 
with their lives and fortunes. This was the same spirit that burst 
into full flower in later years in the Declaration of Independence 
penned by the great Virginian. These resolutions are in the posses- 
sion of the Society of Virginia Antiquities, and comprise one of 
the most precious documents of our early history. 

The Westmoreland patriots never relaxed their activity until 
the Eevolution was ended and the colonies firmly established as an 
independent nation. At, meetings in the Courthouse on June 22, 
1774, on January 31, 1775, and on May 23rd of the same year the 
rights of the colonists were asserted in terms little less vigorous 
than in the Declaration of Independence itself. 


One of the tablets commeni>orates the events of 1766, and the 
other the action of the colonists just preceding the Eevolution. 
They stand as a memorial to men who were not only leaders in the 
patriotic cause in Virginia, but bore a great part in winning the 
independence of all the colonists. If they had been blessed with 
chroniclers as industrious as the Massachusetts historians, the West- 
moreland resolutions would be as familiar to every school child as 
the Boston Tea Party. Virginia has been tardy in giving recogni- 
tion to many of its heroes, but perhaps one reason is that the State, 
like Maryland, is so full of historic spots, so much richer in his- 
tory than in historians and sculptors, that it has required more 
than one hundred and twenty-five years to mark them all. The 
"Mother of Presidents" has produced so many illustrious men that 
they overcrowd her hall of fame. — Editorial Baltimore Sun. 

The Libraky of Congress, 

In Presenting' on May 3, 1910, at Montross, Va., the Portrait of 

Judge Bushrod Wasliington^ Associate Justice of the 

Supreme Court of the United States. 

In appearing before you on behalf of the family of the late 
Colonel John Augustine Washington, of the Confederate States 
Army, to beg the acceptance by Westmoreland county of this por- 
trait of Judge Bushrod Washington, the task of preparing a brief 
sketch of his life to be used on this occasion has been assigned me, 
and I have consented to it, from a sense of filial duty and not from 
any conceit of my special fitness to perform it. 

The difficulty that confronts a layman in an attempt to portray 
the life of one whose reputation rests on professional achievement 
is so generally understood that I undertake it with much diffi- 
dence, trusting to your very indulgent judgment of my effort, and 
promise to confine myself to a plain statement of unornamented 
fact, much of which I have taken from the writings of Judge Bin- 
ney, Judge Hopkinson and Judge Story, who knew Judge Wash- 
ington intimately, having been closely associated with him during 
the thirty-one years he sat on the bench, and esteemed his character 
fit subject for their literary efforts. 

Born at Bushfield. near the mouth of Nomini, in this county, 
on the 5th of June. 1762, Bushrod Washington was the oldest son 


of that Colonel John Augustine Washington whose wife was the 
daughter of Colonel John Bushrod. His ancestors on both sides 
of the house had taken part in the councils of the Colony and of 
the Church in the Colony from the beginning of their history, and 
though perhaps not w^ealthy, he enjoyed from infancy every advan- 
tage that social and political prestige could give; and, what stood 
him in better stead than either or both, the careful training of 
pious, intellectual parents. His early tutelage was firm, if not 
severe. The dominant purpose of parental authority in that day 
was the inculcation of a spirit of reverence. His duty to God, his 
duty to his neighbor, and veneration for his parents held higher 
place in the curriculum of the school in which he was reared than 
the softer policy of obedience from love, and whatever modern 
critics may say of it, its vindication seems secure in the characters 
it produced. In the only letter written by Bushrod Washington 
to his parents that I have seen, he addresses them as "Honored Sir 
and Madam", signs himself, "Your most dutiful, obedient ser- 
vant", and the whole tone of this letter, written when he was about 
sixteen, is deferential in the extreme. 

The schoolmaster, too, was a serious proposition. Solomon's 
admonition as to the use of the rod was as strictly followed in 
the private schools, conducted in the homes in the neighborhood, 
as it was at a later period in the public academies, and it was 
under those conditions that young Washington was prepared for a 
course in William and Mary College, where he finished his classical 
education. General Washington's influence secured him a position 
in the law office of Mr. James Wilson, one of Philadelphia's most 
distinguished lawyers, where he was carefully and thoroughly pre- 
pared for liis chosen profression, and it may not be uninteresting 
to note that it was this Mr. Wilson who was later appointed an 
associate justice, and whom Judge Washington succeeded on the 

On the completion of his law course. Bushrod Washington prac- 
ticed several years in Westmoreland, which he represented in the 
General Assembly and in the Convention that ratified the Federal 
Constitution, though in neither body did he take a very prominent 
part in debate. Neither does his law practice seem to have been 
altogether satisfactory, as we find a letter from him to the Presi- 
dent intimating a desire to be appointed attorney in the Federal 
Court; but the reply he received was sufficient to convince him 
that nepotism was not one of his uncle's redeeming vices, and he 
shortly afterwards removed to Alexandria, where he was no more 
encouraged than he had been in his native county. 


Whether this apparent lack of success was onlj; such as most 
young lawyers experience, or was due to the great draught on his 
time, occasioned by a close attention to the private affairs of Gen- 
eral Washington, whose public duties obliged him to rely on him 
more and more as the cares of State increased, does not appear, 
but his stay in Alexandria was short, and he moved on to Kich- 
mond, where he quickly came into lucrative and successful prac- 
tice, was soon recognized as one of the ablest lawyers in the State, 
and was engaged in the most important cases argued before the 
Appellate Court. He had been married, before leaving Westmore- 
land, to Miss Anne Blackburn, a daughter of Colonel Thomas 
Blackburn, of Prince William county, who had served on the staff 
of General Washington in the Eevolution. The health of this lad'. 
was never robust, and was greatly impaired shortly after her mar- 
riage by a shock occasioned by the sudden death of her sister under 
peculiarly distressing circumstances, a shock from which she never 
entirely recovered, and which rendered her so dependent on her 
husband that he took little part in the social functions for which 
Eichmond was as celebrated then, as now. His whole time was 
devoted to his practice, to the work of writing and publishing the 
decisions of the Court of Appeals of Virginia and to a tender and 
affectionate attention to his wife, which he never relaxed until 
death claimed him, and which caused him to be cited by his family, 
even in my recollection, as a model of what a husband ought to be. 

Though an ardent Federalist, he had taken little part in poli- 
tics, and it was with much reluctance that he consented to be- 
come a candidate for Congress. Politics in Virginia were running 
high, the Federal party was on its downward road to defeat, and 
sacrifices had to be made. He entered the canvass with all his 
energy and had a fair prospect of election, when he received his 
nppointment to the Supreme Bench, which of course withdrew him 
from the field. At the time of his elevation to the bench, Wash- 
ington was only thirty-seven, and it is not unnatural that his selec- 
tion at so early an age for so high an office, should be attributed, 
at least in part, to his relationship to his great kinsman, and I 
have searched most diligently for some word or expression from 
General Washington that might be construed as indicative of a 
desire for his nephew's advancement. General Washington's let- 
ters have been so carefully preserved and so generally published, 
it seems impossible that such wish, if ever written, should remain 
concealed. Not only so, but the writings of every man who was in 
a position to be of service in procuring his appointment have been 
very carefully collected and published ; but in none of them is 
found even a remote reference to such influence. 


President Adams, who made the appointment, seems to have 
considered the question purely with reference to the public interest, 
^iany eminent and distinguished men were urged for the position, 
and the claims and merit of each were carefully considered and 
frankly discussed, but Mr. Adams' mind soon became 'fixed on two 
men, John Marshall and Bushrod Washington; and however men 
may have viewed it then, certainly few men will now consider it 
disparagement to be rated second to John Marshall. In writing 
to Mr. Pickering, Secretary of State, Mr. Adams says : "General 
Marshall or Bushrod Washington will succeed Judge Wilson. 
Marshall is first in age, rank and public service, probably not 
second in talents. The character, the merit and abilities of Mr. 
Washington are greatly respected, but I think General Marshall 
ought to be preferred ; of the three envoys [to France] the conduct 
of Marshall alone has been entirely satisfactory, and ought to be 
marked by the most decided approbation of the public. He has 
raised the American people in their own esteem, and if the in- 
fluence of truth and justice, reason and argument is not lost in 
Europe, he has raised the consideration of the United States in 
that quarter of the world. If Mr. Marshall should decline, I 
should next think of Mr. Washington." 

Other names continued to be presented and considered; but in 
a short time after the letter just quoted, Mr. Adams wrote again 
to his Secretary of State : "I have received your letter of Sepitem- 
ber 20th, and return you the commission for a judge of the Supreme 
Court, signed, leaving the name aud date blnnk. You will fill 
the blank with the name of Marshall if he will accept it, if not, 
with that of Washington." 

(See }yritings of John Adams, Vol. "VIII. pages 596, et seq^) 

Mr. Marshall declined the office and Bushrod Washington was 
appointed, and became, says David Paul Brown, "perhaps, the 
greatest Nisi Prius Judge that the world has ever known, without 
even excepting Chief Justice Holt or Lord Mansfield", and adds, 
"This appointment and that which speedily followed, the Chief 
Justiceship of John Marshall, were enough in themselves to secure 
a lasting obligation of the country to the appointing power." 

In regard to his qualifications as a judge. I have preferred to 
cite the opinions of his contemporaries to expressing one of my 
own. Judge Story says : 

"For thirty-one years he held that important station, with a 
constantly increasing reputation and usefulness. Few men, in- 
deed, have possessed higher qualifications for the office, either 
natural or acquired. Few men have left deeper traces, in their 


judicial career, of everything, which a conscientious judge ought 
to propose for his ambition, or his virtue, or his glory. His mind 
was solid, rather than brilliant; sagacious and searching, rather 
than quick or eager; slow, but not torpid; steady, but not unyield- 
ing; comprehensive, and at the same time, cautious; patient in 
inquiry, forcible in conception, clear in reasoning. He was, by 
original temperament, mild, conciliating, and candid; and yet, he 
was remarkable for an uncompromising firmness. Of him it may 
be truly said, that the fear of man never fell upon him; it never 
entered into his thought, much less was it seen in his actions. In 
him the love of justice was the ruling passion ; it was the master- 
spring of all his conduct. He made it a matter of conscience to 
discharge every duty with scrupulous fidelity and scrupulous zeal. 
It mattered not, w^hether the duty were small or great, witnessed 
by the world, or performed in private, everywhere the same dili- 
gence, watchfulness and pervading sense of justice were seen. 
There was about him a tenderness of giving offense, and yet a fear- 
lessness of consequences in his official character, which I scarcely 
know how to portray. It was a rare combination, which added 
much to the dignity of the bench and made justice itself, even 
when most severe, soften into the moderation of mercy. It gained 
confidence, when it seemed least to seek it. It repressed arrogance, 
by overawing or confounding it." 

Judge Binney, who practiced in his court for twenty years, and 
was afterward associated with him on the bench, says : 

"Without the least apparent effort, he made everybody see at 
first sight, that he was equal to all the duties of the place, cere- 
monial as well as intellectual. His mind was full, his elocution 
free, clear and accurate, his command of all about him indisput- 
able. His learning ancT acuteness were not only equal to the pro- 
foundest argument, but carried the counsel to depths which they 
had not penetrated ; and he was as cool, self-possessed, and efficient 
at a moment of high excitement at the bar, or in the people, as if 
the nerves of fear had been taken out of his brain by the roots. 

"Judge Washington was an accomplished equity lavryer when 
he came to the bench, his practice in Virginia having been chiefly 
in chancery, and he was thoroughly grounded in the common law; 
but he had not been previously familiar with commercial law; and 
he had had no experience at all, either in the superintendence or 
the practice of jury trials at Nisi Prius, after that fashion which 
prevails in Pennsylvania, and in some of the Eastern and North- 
ern States, as well as in England, where the judge repeats and re- 
views the evidence in his charge to the jury, not unfrequentlv 


shows them the learning of his mind in regard to the facts, and 
directs them in matter of law. And nevertheless, it was in these 
two departments or provinces — commercial law and Nisi Prius 
practice and administration, particularly the latter — that he was 
eminent from the outset, and in a short time became, in my appre- 
hension, as accomplished Nisi Prius judge as ever lived. I have 
never seen a judge who in this specialty equalled him. I cannot 
conceive a better. Judging of Lord Mansfield's great powers at 
Nisi Prius, by the accounts which have been transmitted to us, I 
do not believe that even he surpassed Judge Washington. 

''One fundamental faculty for a Nisi Prius judge he possessed 
in absolute perfection, it was attention. Attention sprang from his 
head, full grown, at least as truly as Minerva from Jupiter's, or 
he had trained it up in infancy in some way of his own. He pos- 
sessed the power, as I have said before, in absolute perfection. 

"In addition to this, he had great quickness and accuracy of 
apprehension. Washington never interrogated a witness, nor asked 
counsel to repeat what he had said, and but rarely called for docu- 
ments after they had been read to him. He caught the important 
parts in a moment, and made a reliable note of them, before the 
counsel was ready to proceed with further testimony. 

"He had a most ready command of precise and expressive lan- 
guage, to narrate facts or to communicate thoughts, and a power 
of logical arrangement in his statements and reasonings, which 
presented everything to the jury in the very terms and order that 
were fittest, both for the jury and for the counsel, to exhibit the 
whole case. A jury never came back to ask what he meant, and 
counsel were never at a loss to state the very point of their objection 
to his opinion or charge, if they had any objection to make." 

"Few, very few men", says Judge Hopkinson, "who have been 
distinguished on the judgment seat of the law, have possessed 
higher qualifications, natural and acquired, for the station, than 
Judge Washington. And this is equally true, whether we look to 
the illustrious individuals who have graced the courts of the 
United States, or extend the view to the countrv from which so 
much of our judicial knowledge has been derived. He was wise, 
as well as learned; sagacious and searching in the pursuit and 
discovery of truth, and faithful to it beyond the touch of corrup- 
tion, or the diffidence of fear; he was cautious, considerate and 
slow in forming a judgment, and steadv, l)ut not obstinate, in his 
adherence to it. N"o man was more willing to listen to an argu- 
ment against his opinion; to receive it with candor, or to yield to 
it with more manliness, if it convinced him of his error. He was 


too honest and too proud, .to surrender himself to the undue in- 
fluence of any man, the menaces of an}^ power, or the seductions 
of any interest ; but he was as tractable as humility, to the force of 
truth; as obedient as filial duty, to the voice of reason. When he 
gave up an opinion, he did it not grudgingly, or with reluctant 
qualifications and saving explanations; it was abandoned at once, 
and he rejoiced more than any one, at his escape from it. It is 
only a mind conscious of its strength, and governed by the highest 
principles of integrity, that can make such sacrifices, not only 
without any feeling of humiliation, but with unaffected satisfac- 

In any account of Judge Washington a review of his decisions 
is of course what most interest the profession, but such review 
most briefly stated would occupy more time than could 1)6 allowed 
on an occasion like this, and I pass at once to some of the less con- 
spicuous incidents of his life. 

It is entirely unnecessary to rehearse before this audience the 
efforts made by the Virginia colonists to prevent the shipment of 
African slaves to her shore; you know, too, that when a power too 
strong for the colony to resist, had fastened the institution upon 
her, the wisest statesmen within her borders would have welcomed 
and contributed to its abolishment by any plan not threatening 
greater evils; and on this question Judge Washington did not 
differ from the majority of the gentlemen of his day and class. 
He had witnessed and qn him had fallen the heaviest of the burden 
of General Washington's unfortunate experiment in emancipation; 
he had seen the quiet and contented slave transformed by an act 
of intended philanthropy into a savage menace to the neighbor- 
hood; he had seen its demoralizing effect on those still held in 
bondage, and in company with Judge Marshall had been hurried 
from his official duties to quell a mutiny among the slaves at 
Mount Vernon, only arriving in time to prevent serious trouble. 
How far this insubordination had been brought about by the 
incendiary teaching of emissaries of Northern abolition societies, 
who, under the pretense of patriotic interest in the tomb and the 
late home of the first President, were constantly visiting the place, 
can not be certainly known, but that the influence of those people 
transmitted through these free negroes to his slaves, had practi- 
cally destroyed the value of Judge Washington's property lying 
in that part of the State is shown by a letter written in 1831 to 
the editor of Nile's Begister in reply to attacks that had been made 
on him as President of the American Colonization Society for hav- 
iilg sold over fifty of the negroes. The letter is too long to be 


copied in full, but the paragraphs dealing with this particular 
phase of the question will, I hope, prove interesting. After show- 
ing how, by the purchase of a number of those negroes, to prevent 
the separation of families, the sale had resulted in little pro'fit to 
him ; he says : 

"I had struggled for about twenty 3^ears to pay the expenses of 
my farm and to afford a comfortable support for those who culti- 
vated it, from the produce of their labor. In this way to have 
balanced that account would have satisfied me, but I always had 
to draw upon my other resources for those objects, and I would 
state upon my best judgment that the produce of the farm has in 
general fallen short of its support from $500 to $1,000 annually. 
To the best of my recollection I have durin,g the above period (two 
years excepted) had to buy corn for the negroes, for which I have 
sometimes paid five, six and seven dollars a barrel. Last year I 
commenced the purchase of this article for ninety negroes in the 
month of May and so continued to the end of it. 

"The insubordination of my negroes and their total disregard 
of all authority, rendered them more than useless to me. Southern 
gentlemen understand, and well know how to appreciate the force 
of this motive, and I, therefore, forbear to enlarge upon it. 

"But if it should be asked, as it well may be, why this tempter 
was more observable at Mount Vernon than upon other plantations 
in the neighborhood, I answer that, that place has at times been 
visited by some unworthy persons, who have condescended to hold 
conversations with my negroes and to impress upon their minds the 
belief that as the nephew of General Washington, or as President 
of the Colonization Society, or, for other reasons, I could not hold 
them in bondage, and particularly that they would be free at my 
death. That such conversations have passed I have evidence en- 
tirelv satisfactory to myself; and that such impressions had been 
made on the minds of the negroes was imparted to me by a friend, 
who had no reason to doubt the fact. In consequence of informa- 
tion so truly alarming, I called the negroes together in March last, 
and,, after stating to them what I had heard, and that they had 
been deceived by those who had neither their or my good in view. 
I assured them most solemnly that I had no intention to give 
freedom to any of them, and that nothing but a voluntary act of 
mine could make them so. That disappointment caused by this 
declaration should lead to consequences which followed was to be 

There remained then, no alternative, however distasteful, but 
the sale of his negroes. Emancipation without deportation was 


not to be thought of, and he had already gone as far in that direc- 
tion as prudence permitted, and was at that time contributing to 
the support of the most promising of his servants whom he had 
liberated and sent to Liberia. 

Judge Washington's connection with the Colonization Society 
deserves more notice than it is possible to give it in a sketch of 
this character. He was its first president, and whatever of success 
it enjoyed, was due in no small measure to his labor and interest 
and to the assistance and confidence which his connection with it 
secured. What the work of this society would have amounted to but 
for the Civil War, is a matter of speculation; what it has amounted 
to is best told perhaps by C. H. J. Taylor, who was appointed by 
President Cleveland Minister to that country, and who on his re- 
turn to the United States, painted a pathetic picture of reversion 
to type. 

Judge and Mrs. Washington had no children, and the condition 
of her health rendered impossible a continuance of the hospitality 
that had made Mount Vernon famous during the life of its pre- 
vious owner. A dinner now and then to members of the Supreme 
Court, and that informal visiting that constituted one of the charms 
of Virginia society, was all that Mrs. Washington's strength per- 
mitted, and even that was much interrupted by their frequent 
absences on account of official duties. Mrs. Washington always 
accompanied her husband and insisted on traveling in their private 
carriage, in which they made their regular journeys to Philadelphia 
and Trenton. The fall terra of 1829 was attended with much diffi- 
culty. PTe managed to sit through the session at Trenton and came 
back to Philadelphia, hoping to perform his duties there, bat grew 
steadily worse and died on the 26th of ISTovember, 1829, his wife 
dying the following day. 

One short incident as illustrating his attitude toward his slaves, 
and I am done. 

The incident was related to me by a niece of Mrs. Washington, 
who was a constant visitor at Mount Vernon, and now living, at the 
age of nearly one hundred years. 

An old negro, who was a kind of under gardener, had been en- 
couraged by the promise of a dram, to catch a rat that had done 
much damage and destroyed some of the finest luilbs in the con- 
servatory. The old negro had long pitted his cunning against that 
of the rat. and had devised many traps for its capture, but his 
efforts had been unrewarded, when one day, while the family was 
at dinner, there came a knock at the back door, which was re- 
sponded to by the servant waiting on the table. Peturning to the 


dining room and announcing no visitor, the Judge asked who had 
knocked. The servant replied it was nobody but old Joe with a 
rat and that he had sent him awaj-. 

"Go and bring him back/' said the Judge, and calling for a 
suitable cup he poured out the promised dram and himself took it 
To the door, accompanying its presentation to his old negro with 
highly appreciated praise. 

Such, Mr. President, was the man most inadequately portrayed, 
for whose portrait we beg a place among the portraits of the other 
illustrious sons of this county, and it is no disparagement to the 
greatest among them to have it placed there. He represented what 
they stood for. His regard for truth, and Justice was as great as 
was that of his greater kinsman, and his devotion to duty as sub- 
lime as was that of the immortal Lee. 

Chuecii of the Epiphany, Washington, D. C, 

In Presenting the Gallery to Westmoreland County at the Same 

Time and Place. 

The genius of Sir Walter Scott has immortalized the old Scotch- 
man, Eobert Patterson, who passed his life restoring the grave 
stones of the Covenanters. 

Those pious labors of "Old Mortality" find an interesting par- 
allel in the work which was initiated some years ago by your emi- 
nent fellow citizen. Judge Wright, whom I am proud to call my 
friend — a friend of my early years, when we were both students 
at Jefferson's great university. I refer, of course, to his admirab e 
enterprise of making the county courthouses historical museums, 
where the people may see portrayed by the painter or the sculptor 
the forms and features of the distinguished men whose names have 
adorned their annals. 

I am not surprised to learn that the plan has appealed to the 
pride and patriotism of the people. It is natural that these county 
picture galleries should foster self-respect, and a sense of dignity, 
among the citizens, who are thus constantly reminded of the lives 
and talents and achievements of their ancestors — or, at least, of 
the great men who were the fellow citizens and representatives of 
their ancestors. 

But they should do more. I think you may expect that they 


v/ill awake in the breasts of your young men the laudable ambition 
to emulate the example of the illustrious men who sprang from the 
sacred soil of Westmoreland. Well may these historical museums 
be instrumental in kindling the resolve of your young men to be 
worthy of their sires — to rise to the same lofty plane of endeavor 
on which they lived and labored — to serve their country and their 
fellow^ citizens as they did — to count for something in the making 
of the future history of the Old Dominion. 

We read in Holy Writ that the funeral rites of a certain man 
of Israel were rudely interrupted by the approach of a band of 
Moabite invaders; and that, in consequence, the corpse was cast 
in haste into the sepulchre of the prophet Elisha, whereupon an 
amazing thing occurred, viz., this : "WTien the dead man was let 
down and touched the bones of Elisha, he revived and stood up 
on his feet.'^ 

This, my fellow citizens, is to me a parable of what may be 
anticipated when a young man in whose breast noble ambition is 
dead, patriotism is dead, the sense of responsibility for the better- 
ment of the world is dead — and, alas ! there are such young men,, 
dead W'hile they live, dead to the solemn issues and the splendid 
opportunities of life — I say, when such a young man is brought 
into contact with even, so to speak, the bones of those great men of 
old Virginia; with the memories of what they were; with the story 
of their lives ; wdth even a feeble outline of their achievements, we 
may expect, in some cases, at least, a similar resurrection. He will 
awake to a new life. Ambition will stir within his breast to play 
worthily his part on the stage of life. He will say to himself, "Why 
should not my life count for something in the land of my birth? 
Why should not I achieve something worthy the name I bear — 
worthy of the great State of which I am a citizen? Why not? 
The same blood flows in my veins. The same noble line of ances- 
tors incite me to be worthy of my birth — worthy of my name." 

My fellow citizens, why should we think the old noblesse of this 
ancient commonwealth incapable of a new outburst of genius and 
force when the times shall require it? 

It (lid not fail half a century ago when a tremendous crisis 
arose in the history of the Old Dominion. A hero arose — he was 
born ill old Stratford — who wrought deeds of arms more illustrious 
than any wrought by the famous men of the Eevolutionary epoch. 
Such w'as his stature, in peace as well as in war, that he stands in 
the Temple of Fame the unquestioned equal of that other great 
American whom Westmoreland gave to the world, born at old 
Wakefield. Anrl this oflorious hero of 1861-'T0 was not alone. He 


had behind him a great company of men of courage and capacity, 
unsurpassed in the Eevolution of 1776. Yes, Virginia's outburst 
of genius and force in 18G1 was worthy of her best days. 

Fellow citizens, I have faith to believe it will not fail in the 
time to come, and I think this enterprise of my friend, Judge 
Wright, will help it to the birth. 

The early settlers of this county named it Westmoreland after 
that famous county in the west of England which has ever been 
renowned for its beautiful mountains and its lovely lakes — Win- 
dermere, Grasmere, and Ulswater. But this Virginia Westmore- 
land presents a striking contrast in those respects to the West- 
moreland of old England. Here is, indeed, on your northern bor- 
der a majestic river to which all Europe can furnish no equal, but 
you have no charming lakes reflecting lovely hills and mirroring 
the changing hues of the sky; you have no beautiful mountains 
lifting their lofty heads towards heaven. Your country is level 
(I believe it boasts one hill), and though it has a beauty and a 
charm all its own, it cannot rival the picturesquencss of that famous 
lake country of the northwest of England. 

But, my friends, as the traveller passes through this Virginia 
Westmoreland, the forms of the great men who have sprung from 
its soil rise before him. Their fame, their great deeds, tower up 
to heaven, loftier and more majestic than the mountains of Eng- 
land's Westmoreland. The deeds they have wrought, the ideas they 
have given to the world, the standards of civic virtue they have 
upheld, are like lofty peaks piercing the sky on every hand. After 
all, great men are more impressive than great mountains, and the 
great men born on this sacred soil of yours are among the greatest 
of all time. 

Here were born two Presidents of the United States — Washing- 
ton, "the Father of his Country," and Monroe, "the Father of the 
Monroe doctrine." Close to your border was born Madison, ^^the 
Father of the Constitution." Here, too, was born Thomas Mar- 
shall, father of the great Chief Justice Marshall ; so that Westmore- 
land is the grandmother of that illustrious jurist. Here was born 
another great jurist, Bushrod Washington, whom President Adams 
placed second only to John Marshall, and who in the estimation of 
Mr. Justice Story, was one of the greatest ornaments that ever 
adorned the Supreme Bench of the United States. Of other fam- 
ilies which flourished here, I have time only to speak of one — that 
illustrious family of the Lees, which has given so many notable 
men to history, from Colonel Richard Henry Lee, who dared to 
challenge the power of the mighty Cromwell, and only at last 


acknowledged his authority on condition that the Old Dominion 
should never bear taxation without representation, down to the 
last and greatest of the name. Grand old Stratford House has a 
history unequaled by any other mansion in American history. 
There lived Governor Thomas liCe, whose worth was so much ap- 
preciated in the mother country that Queen Caroline contributed, 
unsolicited, a large sum from the Privy Purse to help rebuild it, 
when it had been destroyed by fire. There, in the same chamber, 
Avere born two of the signers of the Declaration par nobile fratrum,, 
Francis Lightfoot Lee and Eichard Henry Lee, the Cicero of 
the Continental Congress, scholar (Wirt says he was by far the 
most elegant scholar in the House) . debater, statesman, patriot, 
orator, "the smooth tongued chief, from whose persuasive lips, 
sweeter than honey, flowed the stream of speech" — the man who 
dared to propose the resolution that "these Colonies are and by 
right ought to be free and independent States'" — the man who was 
unanimousl}' elected President of the American Congress and 
afterwards one of Virginia's first representatives in the United 
States Senate — the man who would have been charged with the 
duty of writing the Declaration of Independence, but that he an- 
swered the call to hasten to the bedside of his sick wife. It was 
he who wrote the Memorial of Congress to the people of British 
America. His hand also produced the Address of Congress to the 
People of Great Britain, productions which Mr. Wirt says were 
"unsurpassed by any of the State Papers of the time." No won- 
der the British made such strenuous efforts to capture him. At 
Stratford was born also Arthur Lee, who rendered such di'stin- 
gnished service to the young Eepublic in France and England. At 
Stratford, too, lived Henry Lee, the famous Light Horse Harry, a 
soldier of great ability, the favorite of Washington, chosen by 
Congress to pronounce his funeral oration; an accomplished classi- 
cal scholar, a brilliant orator and the historian of the Southern 
Campaigns of the Eevolution. One of his famous utterances may 
here be recalled : "Virginia is my country ! Her will I obey, 
however lamentable the fate to which it may subject me !" But I 
have yet to name the crowning glory of old Stratford — it was the 
birthplace of the greatest 'soldier in American history. "His eye 
and lofty brow the counterpart of Jove, the Lord of thunder" — of 
whom Viscount Lord Wolseley has said that he would be recognized 
as the greatest American of the nineteenth century, and of whom 
Freeman the historian said, that he was worthy to occupy in his- 
tory a place side by 'side with Washington himself; and I may re- 
mind you that Lord Brougham acclaimed Washington as the sreat 
est man of our own or an;y other ag;.. 


Yes, my fellow cdtizens, this old coimty of Wesxmoreland was 
the mother of both these peerless heroes — Washington, whose brow 
Fortune crowned with the laurel of success in his great Eebellion 
against the mother country; and Lee, foredoomed by Fate to fail 
in his Titanic effort to establish the Southern Confederacy, but in 
ispite of failure — yes, by reason of his failure, rising to a height of 
moral grandeur never reached by any other American. 

History tells us that seven cities contended for the honor of 
being the birthplace of Homer, but Westmoreland has the undis- 
puted title of having been the birthplace of these two greatest 
Americans. ISTo wonder this ancient county has been called the 
Athens of Virginia, for the "worth, the talents and the patriot- 
ism that once adorned it.'' No wonder it has been celebrated above 
all other counties in Virginia as the birthplace of genius and lib- 
erty. The great Athenian orator, Pericles, once exclaimed, "The 
M^hole earth is the sepulchre of illustrious men," because their 
greatness has given them a claim upon all the world. But the city 
or the county that gives birth to a great man receives the homage 
of the world as the benefactor of mankind. 

Such is the homage which is due to this Virginia Westmore- 
land for the patriot's, the orators, the soldiers, the jurists, the 
statesmen, she has given to America and to mankind. 

The nations of the world to-day acclaim this great Eepublic of 
the W>st. They recognize her as the mightiest power on earth. 
'Fhey do honor to her flag in every land and on every sea. But it 
may be truly said, that but for the men of genius and devoted 
patriotism who 'sprang from your soil, my fellow citizens, the thir- 
teen colonies would never have achieved their independence and the 
United States of x\merica would never have been born. 

The spirit of liberty and independence began to stir in this 
famous county, I believe, at an earlier period than in any other 
part of our broad land. Your patriots met at Leedstown, in the 
northern part of this county, under the leadership of Richard 
Henry Lee and the presidency of Judge Parker, to denounce and 
oppose the Stamp Act, ten years before the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and long before the North Carolina Declaration at Meck- 

But to-day, alas ! the traveller in the Northern ]Sl eck finds many 
a scene of desolation where once were the homes of patriots and 
statesmen. Wakefield is no more. Chantilly is a wilderness. Of 
Nomini Hall not one stone is left upon another. Pope's Creek 
Church is in ruins. Leeds Church has disappeared. Round 
Hill Church is no more. Even tHe grand old pile of Stratford is 


falling into decay. We see in many places the ruins of clmrches, 
mansions and cemeteries, once identified with the great families of 
the county. 

Well, in some respects it is true that decay and death have set 
I heir seal on much in this county that was once associated with its 
genius, with its culture, with its force. What then? Though the 
seed be dead, the harvest that sprang from it has filled the world 
with the fruits of liberty and justice and civilization. So these 
old decaying mansions, these ruined churches, "the)|3e neglected 
cemeteries, should be to every American sacred spofs, consecrated 
for all time by the memories of the brilliant past ; by the liveis and 
achievements of the great men whose homes were in this ancient 
county, and hence went forth to build the American Republic. 
Yes, it is meet we should do homage to-day to the shades of the 
mighty men, the sons of old Westmoreland, whose genius and self- 
devotion created the fabric of our free institutions. 

The venerable Bishop Meade, reflecting upon the spectacle pre- 
sented by the ruined churches and mansions of Westmoreland, says 
one is tempted to exclaim, ""Fidt Ilium ei ingens gloria Dardani- 
dum'' but no, he continues, "We trust there awaits for Westmore- 
land a greater glory than the former." 

Prophetic words, my fellow citizens, for to-day a greater glory 
does indeed belong to Westmoreland than when the noble Bishop 
contemplated her fallen grandeur, in that she is acclaimed as the 
mother of that hero of whom 1 have 'spoken, born at Stratford, 
whose glory fills the world, as did that of Washington, shining, 
too, with a peculiar lustre derived from the fact that in defeat and 
disaster he bore himself with a majesty and a dignity and a spirit 
of Christian 'self-sacrifice and sulmiission which the great son of 
Wakefield, crowned as he was with success, never had the oppor- 
tunity to show. 

Nor is the venerable Bishop's prophecy yet entirely fulfilled. 
We believe that Westmoreland will yet bring forth noble fruit in 
lier old age. Her waste places shall be restored: she shall l)lossom 
as the rose: her soil will vet support a teeming population: her 
ruined churches shall be rebuilt: her people shall be animated by a 
spirit worthy of her great past: her young men sliali be fired with 
a noble ambition to emulate th(> patriotism and the virtues of her 
heroes of former days: the old (Commonwealth of Virginia shall 
welcome to her counsels men ol an intelU^ctual and moral stature 
wortliy of Westmoreland s splendid history. And vvliat we are do- 
ing liere to-day shall, by God''s blessing, contribute to that <>nd so 
devoutly desired bv us all. 



Of Westmoreland County^ Va., 
In Accepting the Gallery at the Same Time and Place. 

Your Honor, Ladies and Gentlemen, — The interest and pleas- 
ure which I feel in accepting in behalf of the people of this county, 
this elegant statne and these portraits of her distingui'shed sons, 
spring from a variety of sources. One of these, and it is one which 
all present must have greatly enjoyed, i's the exceedingly graceful 
and felicitous manner in which these memorials were presented 
by the distinguished gentleman who has just spoken (Dr. McKim). 
It is a plea'sing cause of felicitation to us all that among the men 
represented in these portraits there are so many names eminent in 
our history and embalmed in the hearts of all our countrymen. 
It is also a source of happy reflection that the merits and virtues 
of these worthy men are not sinking and fading from the minds 
of their posterity, but are receiving ever fresh and significant 
tokens of a growing appreciation and esteem. It is, moreover, a 
matter of hearty congratulation that it cannot Be so truly said jas 
once it was. that as a people we are too intent and busy in making 
history to care for its records or the perpetuation of its memorial's. 
Now, happily, it would seem if our gaze be on the future and 
"Forward" be our motto, and oun hands eagerly grapple with the 
strenuous present, we still can pause to glance backward at the 
lights which have illumined our pathway, and to give attentive 
heed to the voice? which call to us from the past in mingled ac- 
cents of virtue, of manly honor, of love of country, and of un- 
selifish and oft times heroic devotion to duty. For one, at least, I 
say thrice welcome the day when the easrer present clasps hands with 
the past, and the grateful children gather reverently, as it were, 
at the feet of the fathers, to crown their brows with the chaplets 
of their veneration and love. 

The patriots and heroes represented in these portraits claim 
our devout and admiring contemplation not merely because of their 
high characters, but by reason of the important positions which 
they held, the high arenas on which they acted, and the noble ser- 
vices which they rendered. One of them — Colonel Thomas Lee — 
was acting Governor of Virginia when she was as yet a colonial 
dependence of Great Britain. Another — William Lee — having 
made his residence in England, became Lord Mayor of London 
and Middlesex. Another — Richard Henry Lee — as a member of 
the Continental Congress of 1776, offered the memorable resolu- 


tion for Independence which unsheathed the sword of the Eevolu- 
tion. Another — George Washington — led the colonial armies to 
victory in that great conflict. Two of them (Washington and Mon- 
roe) were elevated to the chief magistracy of the nation. Three of 
them (William Lee, Arthur Lee, and James Monroe) served effi- 
ciently as diplomatic agents at the leading courts of Europe; two 
of them (Charles Lee and James Monroe) served as United States 
cabinet officers; two of them (Henry Lee, son by adoption, and 
James Monroe) were Governors of Virginia; one (Bushrod Wnsh- 
ington) was a justice of the United States Supreme Court; one 
(Eichard E. Parker) was a Justice of the Virginia Court of Ap- 
peals; two (Eichard Parker and John Critcher) were judges of Vir- 
ginia circuits, and eight at least (E. H. Lee, Francis L. Lee, Arthur 
Lee, Henry Lee, an adopted son, John P. Hungerford, Willoughby 
Newton, E. L. T. Beale, and E. M. Mayo) held seats in Congress. 
And amongst these all — conspicuous and commanding — rises the 
majestic form of Eobert Edward Lee, who was to this old county 
even as Joseph was to Jacob, for whom in the hours of his stern 
trials and splendid victories she felt as the patriarch felt for his 
favorite son — "The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him 
and hated him : but his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his 
liand were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob." 

The endeavor to perpetuate in enduring portraiture the forms 
and features of these great and worthy men is one for which the 
citizens of this county find abundant incentive and encouragement 
from what the public spirit and patriotism of our coujitr3anen have 
already done in every part of this great Eepublic. In the dis- 
charge of such a duty we are but joining hands with broad minded 
and liberal Americans who in the jSTorth, South, East and West, 
have paid more elaborate and costly tributes to the memory and 
deeds of these noble sons than we can do to-day. The marble 
effigy, the granite column, the heroic bronze, the life-like portrait, 
the finished steel-plate, have all been commanded, and the genius 
of art has bestowed its choicest benedictions on the chief figures 
in this pantheon of our patriots, statesmen, jurists and soldiers. 
It would seem to be an easy and a graceful thing that when the 
universal chorus is proclaiming their praises, and the votaries of 
patriotism and honor in other places are weaving wreaths for their 
l3rows. some notes should mingle in the mighty song from the native 
hannts which these worthies once frequented, and some sprigs be 
offered from the ground once hallowed by their birth and early 

It seems proper to note that in thus paying formal tribute to 
these eminent sons of Westmoreland, by birth and adoption, we are 
doing indirect and porclianco unconscious honor to the local con- 


ditioiis and home influences amidst which their lofty ideals were 
formed and their nobility of character nurtured. These men, in 
tlieir pure and lofty piatriotism, their love of justice and right, 
their unconquerable love of liberty, their high sense of personal 
and professional honor, their indomitable courage and firmness, 
iheir magnanimity and patience, their public virtue which no pres- 
sure could bend and no shock could break, came not into possession 
of their rich investiture of intellectual and moral manhood by 
chance. These splendid qualities sprang not from the virgin soil 
which gave them birth; they were not exhaled from the generous 
foliage of the primeval trees beneath which they sported in their 
childhood gambols; they were not shed down on them like star- 
light from the heavens which bent benignly over them in youth; 
nor did prodigal nature, like a fond mother, confer them along 
with her other splendid bestowments of pliysical and intellectual 
manhood. But they were instilled into them at their mothers' 
knees; they were an inheritance transmitted from sires to sons, 
and that from hardy men who had fought in freedom's battles 
beyond the sea and in the colonial wars; they Avere imprinted on 
their minds and hearts by the examples and traditions of their 
homes, and by the swords and rapiers, the muskets and pistols, 
hanging on their walls, which had mingled in bloody scenes of 
valor and prowess on historic fields; they came to them as an in- 
spiration from fathers who had in small crafts braved the ocean's 
storms, who had met the crafty perils of a savage foe, who had 
felled the forests, had cleared the jungles, opened the highways, 
builded the pioneer homes, and reared shrines of domestic life, edu- 
cation and" religion where dense wildwood and tangled vines had 
grown, and had learned by these hardy struggles self-reliance and 
independence and that resolute spirit which shrinks not in the face 
of difficulties or at the frown of dangers. 

These men caught the spirit of patriotism from fathers whose 
right hands had won the land from its savage occupants, and who 
in the struggle had been hrought into close and sympathetic touch 
with it : who had had fellowship with it in all its varying forms 
and cluinging seasons, who had stretched their forms for rest and 
sleep on its leaf-covered bosom, who in the intervals of their slum- 
bers had gazed .up through overarching branches at the stars, who 
had heard the roar of the tempests among the giant trees, who had 
watched eagles in majestic flight sweeping to their eyries, and seen 
the sportive deer bounding in tlieir forest haunts free as the winds 
of heaven : who had listened with easrer ear to the echoes of the 
huntsman's horn. avIio knew the gurgling music of the unfettered 
streamlets, the sound of rustling leaves, the patter of the rain drops, 


the plaintive notes of the turtle cloves, the glad voices of all the 
woodland songsters, in a word, all the countless harmonies which 
mingle in the grand oratorio of nature, and who felt; 

"My native country, thee, 
Land of the noble free. 
Thy name I love, 
I love thy rocks and rills. 
Thy woods and templed hills, 
My heart with rapiture thrills. 
Like that above." 

Such exercises as engage our attention to-day, intended to com- 
memorate our illustrious dead as they are, should not be deemed 
empty or valueless as respects their moral, virtuous and patriotic 
tendency and teaching. They have indeed a bearing, and are 
fraught with a signi'ficance, above all merely practical, commercial 
or utilitarian aims and objects, much as these are emphasized in 
these strenuous and grinding times. If we should trace the his- 
tory of the foremost nations in all the files of time with respect 
to their art, their literature and their eloquence, we should find 
that these have all been kindled into their highest and noblest 
flames at the cenotaphs of their immortal dead. The inspired pens 
of the Hebrew writers of the Bible never caught a more seraphic 
fire than Avhen portraying the footprints of the Man of Galilee 
or the deeds of those heroes of faith "of whom the world was not 
worthy." Grecian oratory knew no finer masterpiece than Pericles' 
eulogy of his fallen countryman, and its poetry never attained a 
higher mark than when Homer, ''the grand old bard that never 
dies," sang the martial deeds of her heroes who maintained their 
country's honor and prowess on the Trojan plains. Amongst the 
Latins the foremost place in their treasured literature must be 
accorded to Virgil, recounting in one of the grandest epics of all 
time the deeds of ^neas and Anchises, of Hector and Achilles, 
of Dido, Pallas and Camillas. The annals of English literature — 
British and American — and the treasures of its painting and sculp- 
ture contain no triumphs nobler or more inspiring than those which 
portray the deeds or perpetuate the forms 

"Of the few, the immortal names that were not born to die." 

But it is not on the altars of genius alone, whether consecrated 
by poetry, or art, or eloquence, that the contemplation of men of 
high attainments and noble deeds is felt as an insfiiration to stir 
the soul with aspirations for nobler and better things. The plain 
people, the common sons and daughters of toil — the honest yeo- 


inanry, their country's strength and pride — own the spell, and arc 
responsive to the iniiuences of such lives and characters. They 
recognize in such contemplations a call to set a higher estimate on 
their own condition and surroundings, to inspire a generous spirit 
of emulation, to elevate the standard of personal honor, to inspire 
a higher conception of the dignity and capabilities of our fallen 
but sublime humanity, and to brighten the prospects of our coun- 
try's high mission and destiny. 

And this recalls to me an aged and shrivelled woman who once 
lived within a mile of this place, where now a lone chimne}^ stand- 
ing amidst tall scions, weeds and rubbish, keeps solitary sentry over 
the spot of her ruined home. I knev^ her in the years which im- 
mediately succeeded the war of secession, when the ease, afflu- 
ence and comforts of her better days were gone, when devastation 
and poverty brooded like the grim spectres of a hideous nightmare 
over her State; when want, chilling and haggard, threatened en- 
trance at her door. It was a time when chill penury -might well 
freeze the genial current of her soul and bitter repinings suppress 
the glad songs of her happier days. I knew her amidst the chaos, 
the wreck, the gloom, that war's convulsion had left, when from 
her grandmother's chair, with age-dimmed eyes, she could look out 
on desolated fortunes, and domestic and political institutions and 
Southern valor all lying like a carcass on the field with the vul- 
inres gathering over it; when patriot graves and household gods 
were trodden beneath alien feet. But as far as I could observe she 
yielded to no spirit of repining; she seemed to know how to "he 
still in God." But she would talk of her revolutionary sire, of her 
uncles who served under Washington, of their co-patriots, of men 
whom she had known in later wars upholding their country's cause 
and honor. How her face would brighten and her eye kindle at 
mention of their nobleness, their chivalry, their 'fine gentlemanly 
courtesy, their patriotism and manly honor! i\midst the shadows 
and desolation that surrounded her, 'twas evident that in her 
thought a grand and noble past was casting more than sunset 
glories over her State ; and one could see that memories of the 
heroic dead were kindling the fine enthusiasm of her being, and 
her indomitable and unconquerable spirit was drawing inspiration 
from the ashes of her sires. As I listened to this noble type of a 
noble race, I could not but feel for myself and for my conntymen, 
as I do feel here and now — 

"Long, long be my heart with such memories filled, 
Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled. 
You may break, you may shatter the vase if you will, 
But the scent of the roses will hnus, round it still." 


Leedstown, the Southern Cradle of American 

The Famous Articles of "The Association of Westmoreland" Of- 
fered hy Richard Henry Lee and Passed hy the Patriots of 
Westmoreland More Than Nine Years Before the MecMen- 
hurg (N. C.) Resolutions and More Than Ten Years Before 
the Declaration of l7idependence. 

Few people realize that the little settlement in Westmoreland 
county on the Rappahannock river, where the large steamers from 
Fredericksburg to Baltimore tie up for the night, is one of the his- 
toric places in this country, and the many travelers and tourists, 
passengers on these elegant steamers, never think, as they look out 
at the three or four houses, that this was once an important port, 
and that vessels direct from P]ng]and landed here and discharged 
their cargoes of the many articles not manufactured here then ; 
that to this port came the polished furniture, the beautiful china, 
the massive silver, and the elegant dresses that adorned the Homes 
and the persons of those great Westmoreland families, such as the 
Washingtons, Lees, Monroes, and others who lived here in colonial 
days; that here shiploads of tobacco and other products of tlie soil 
were loaded for foreign countries. 

In IGOS, when Captain John Smith and his party first explored 
the Eapp^ahannock river, Leedstown was then an Indian town of 
much consequence, the home of King Passassaek, of the Rappa- 
hannock tribe. Captain Smith's party was attacked by these Rap- 
pahannocks, and Richard Featherstone was killed. He was buried 
on the south side of the Rappahannock river, near the water edge, 
a few miles below Leedstown. This was the first death and burial 
of a white man in this section. 

Leedstown was settled in 1683, and named after Leeds, in Eng- 
land. From the very first, the white settlers were constantly at- 
tacked by the Indians, with the riv^^ult that a military spirit grew 
up among the people, and we find among the military leaders 
against the Indians these familiar names: Captain John Lee, Cap- 
tain John Washington, Captain George Mnsoii and Captain Brent. 
In fact, it was the terrible retaliation upon the Indians by Captains 
Mason and Brent that l)rought on the general uprising that finally 
resulted in "Bacon's Rebellion." 


Leedstown and the Stamp Act. 

In 1764, when the British Parliament passed the odious Stamp 
Act, it was violently opposed by the people of this section. The 
justices of Westmoreland county promptly notified the Assembly 
that they would not act after November, 1765, because "from that 
period, the Acts for establishing stamps in America commences, 
which Act will impose on us the necessity of either not conforming 
to its direction, or, by so doing, to become instruments in the de- 
struction of the most essential rights and liberties of our coun- 
try," In fact, in 1766, more than ten years before the Declaration 
of Independence, Thomas Ludwell Lee, who was born at Stratford, 
but then living in Stafford county, dispatched by a boy to his 
brother, Eichard Henry Lee (also born at Stratford, and then liv- 
ing at Chantilly, an adjoining estate), a letter which read: "We 
propose to be in Leedstown in the afternoon of the 27th inst., 
where we expect to meet, those who will come from your way. It 
is proposed that all who have swords or pistols will ride with them, 
and those who choose, a firelock. This will be a fine opportunity 
to effect the scheme of an association, and I would be glad if you 
would think of a plan." On the day specified, on all the roads 
leading to Leedstown, our patriotic fathers came riding into that 
ancient village. On that day, they formed an association, and one 
hundred and fifteen of 'them solemnly bound themselves in the 
following agreement : 

"We who subscribe this paper have associated and do bind our- 
selves to each other, to God. and to our country, by the firmest ties 
that religion and virtue can frame most sacredly and punctually to 
stand by, and with our lives and our fortunes, to support, maintain 
and defend each other in the observance and execution of" certain 
Articles, among which we find this : "As the Stamp Act does abso- 
lutely direct the property of the people to be taken from them 
without their consent, expressed by their representation, and, as in 
many cases, it deprives the British American subject of his right 
of trial by jury, we do determine, at every hazard, and paying no 
regard to danger or to death, we will exert every faculty to prevent 
the execution of said Stamp Act in any instance whatsoever with 
this Colony, and every abandoned wretch who shall be so lost to 
virtue and public good as wickedly to contribute to the introduction 
or ifixture of the Stamp Act in this Colony, by using stamp paper, 
or by any other means, we Avill. with the utmost expedition, con- 
vince all such proHigates tliat immediate Sanger and disgrace shall 
attend their ptrofligate purpose.'* 


This paper, adopted February 37, 1766f is known in history as 
the "Westmoreland Rcsolulion," and is probably the first public 
and open resistance to the Mother Country. This paper was writ- 
ten by Richard Tlenry Leo, the one who, ten years later, wrote and 
introduced in the Continental Congress, on June 7, 1777, that 
famous motion, 

"Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought 
to be, free and independent States; that they arc absolved from all 
allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, 
totally dissolved." 

This Westmoreland resolution was also signed by four Wash- 
ingtons, brothers of the one who, ten years later, was chosen Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Continental ^rmy, and, later, the first 
President of these United States. And the one who sent the letter, 
calling for this meeting, became the guiding spirit in Virginia's 
famous Committee of Safety." 

Here, at Leedstown, you can still see the ruins of one of the 
first three churches built in this country, and was known as Leeds, 
or Brays ChurcK In 1857 Bishop Meade wrote (Vol. II, p. 164) : 
"This church stood on the Eappahannoek, at the outskirts of the 
place called Leeds. It was of brick. The ruins of it are yet to 
be seen, apparently hanging on the bank of the river. It has under- 
gone many changes of late years, since it was deserted as a house 
of worship, having been used as a tavern, a stable or barn, and 
having -been altered to suit the different purposes to which it has 
been applied. 

"Leeds was once a place of note in this part of Virginia. It 
was, doubtless, named by the Fairfaxes or Washingtons, after the 
town of Leeds, in Yorkshire, near which both of their ancestral 
families lived. This, in Virginia, was a place of much trade in 
tobacco and other things. Its shipping was very considerable at 
one time, and it gave promise of being a town of no small impor- 
tance, but, like many other such places in Virginia, as Dumfries, 
Colchester, Warren, Warminster, it failed to fulfill the expecta- 
tion excited. For one thing, it deserves to retain a lasting place in 
the history of tlu^ American Revolution. As l)Oston was the North- 
ern", so Leedg may be called the Soutliern cradle of .\merican In- 
dependence. This was the place where, with Richard Henry Lee 
as their leader, the patriots of Westmoreland met before any and 
all others, to enter their protest against the incipient steps of Eng- 
lish usurpation. At thi.s place did they resolve to oppose the Stamp 
Act. and forbid any citizen of Westmoreland to deal in stamps. 
This is a Irue part of American history." 


Why should not a suitable monument be erected here to com- 
memorate the great event, and let the world know the truth, that 
proper credit may be given this ancient hamlet and the patriotic 
citizens of this county? — F. W. Alexander, in Colonial Beach 
Record, January 24, 1910. 

We give the full text below of the famous Articles (sometimes 
referred to as resolutions) of "the Association in Westmoreland." 
They were prepared and offered by Richard Henry Lee at Leeds- 
town, Va., February 27, 1766 (Judge Eichard Parker presiding), 
and passed by the patriots of Westmoreland, one hundred and fif- 
teen in number. They are taken from TJie Virginia Historical 
Register and Literary Advertiser^ edited by William Maxwell, Vol. 
II (1849), pages 14-18. 

The original manuscript document is in the Virginia Histori- 
cal Society, Richmond, Va., found among the papers of the late 
Major Henry Lee, eldest son of General Henry Lee (by Matilda 
Lee, of Stratford), Consul-General to Algiers during Jackson's 


At the late annual meeting of the Virginia Historical Society, 
on the 14th ult., the President of the Society, the Hon. William C. 
Rives, of xVlbemarle, submitted a very interesting document illus- 
trative of the patriotic spirit that prevailed in Virginia, and par- 
ticularly in the county of Westmoreland, about the time of the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765; which he had received from 
the Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the ISTavy, together with a 
letter from that gentleman, which was read, and is as follow? : 

Copy of a letter from the Hon. John Y. Mason, Secretary of the 
Navy to the Hon. William C. Rives, President of the 
Historical Society of Virginia. 

Washington City, December 13, 1848. 

Sir, — In the year 1847, Dr. Carr, now deceased, placed in my 
hands an original Manuscript Document, datecT in 1766, which ap- 
pears to me so interesting in the Colonial History of Virginia, that 
I venture to transmit it to you. for such disposition a,s the Histori- 
cal Society may think proper to make of it. It was signed by the 
patriots of that day, soon after the i)assage of the British Stamp 


Act of 1765 was known in 'the Colony — and it asserts in bold lan- 
guage, the rights, essential to Civil Liberty, which were subse- 
quently maintained by the American Eevolutlon. 
I have the honor to be 

Very respectfully your ob't serv't, 

J. Y. Mason. 

To the President of the Historical Society of Va. 

The document referred to in the foregoing letter, is now lodged 
in the archives of the Society, and is enclosed in a paper which has 
an indorsement upon it in these words : 

This remarkable document, illusfrative of the early patriotism 
of "Virginia gentlemen, Avas found among the papers of the late 
Henry Lee, Esq., Consul Gen'l to Algiers. 

In view to its better preservation for the honor of Virginia and 
the numerous descendants of the illustrious men who signed it, it 
is now conifided to the care of the Hon. John Y. Mason, an eminent 
son of Virginia, whose appreciation ot its importance will secure 
it perpetual safety, by 

Sam'l Jno. Carr, 

<; Of So. Carolina, now residing in Maryland. 

Baltimore, 1847, 

(Now inscribed on taldet at Montross, Va.. and in Circnit Court 

Order Book.) 

"Roused by danger, and alarmed at attempts, foreign and 
domestic, to reduce the people of this country to a state of abject 
and detestable slavery, by destroying that free and happy constitu- 
tion of govermnent, under which they have hitherto lived. — We, 
who subscribe this paper, have associated, and do bind ourselves 
to each other, to God. and to our country, by the firmest ties that 
religion and virtue can frame, most sacredly and punctually to 
stand by, and with our lives and fortunes, to support, maintain, 
and defend each other in the observance and execution of these 
following articles : 

First. We declare all due allegiance and o])edience to our law- 
ful Sovereign, George the third. King of Great Britain. And we 
determine to the utmost of our power to preserve the laws, the 
peace and good order of this Colony, as far as is consistent with 
the preservation of our Constitutional rigTrts and liberty. 


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"icuKs.te Bt^jwaatOa «*8cati«a ofido easd Stamp 

Actitt aajr iastanca wljat»«»e*«r witiin (his r<»l«»y,*»e4 «wir5( abat.ra<loQe<i 
wpetc-k.whe shallow «o lo»t fe» »ti-tn« attd public f«(»4,as wjck-rfl-rticoitfribttte 
to th« iatpoductioa ar fixture »f tins Sta mp 4<rf in 1 1 . ' , • ' j( 

p«,y«r,erl»> aaj »t]iiwriBea«!i,w«> will.mth Ui« ul n neh 

' '■' I n ' , ' -uT-oly .»ao 1 

t < II .id tsvsf the 

"^lamp v( tli-.l iatui».ji . i . (» a« mSS.^ »t Ija... w 

ai{ies«sl>i<!;a.railk!tiewi-^ra< 'n-m*a,akall.withiex|> 

toaplacBBfH«i»tiii^(eT>«api -ii- tt« «e«M» rf aetMra, 

rir^ h ' > . Each a«s»ciat»ir .^»i»j. .i« , » iro.? <»t«^av®pt» ahtsun as 
' signers le this»wk.a.» h.» possiblv can.. 
Ci . mi Y BTauiy attempt dfe«Il WmaxJ® sis. &« liberfv op property 
•-> iMs»eiatf«> for om^ !u«ma m- Utemf i» be <i«a« is. e0B.«aq.usffic<> ofClu.. » 
•w ib> m»«t Mlejaaly bsnA mtrselwM 'fcy ike »aa-e4 <f H.t«i|amcBt» al»»*e entered ira<a, 
atfli« risk of our lives an* fo!-tuii»a»,fen>e»t«re suclt assaejate to liis 
1ib«rtv, aad to protect bim in tim e!».j»yn»mil of his propertj; 
la t<t«(im«ay 9f thv 4«ocl f&ttk wttii wbieb. mi ms^iM M exvciito «bu 
Uava tbi. ?<!«^ Aaj »f F*W«.afyll8«.ia*iiffiEU,8.,|mt»ui-haBd« aa4 «e 

Hvd ftam &eft nar , Fro 

S^mcfM Ball, Pfttr Butt 

Ktt.^ltarti Mtfe^.ell, Jodre i,«e, 

</ff»e»A MtLr-<±OQtt. " ■ - - 

Ji.rA-' Pai-fcpr-. 

JaHti ■mat 

Wttf S»*en5ff»t Wi(/ia.m 

r«ff» £«ct i:c€. ytuiiam. raciw, 

Sami Waikm^roR, Witfia. Graysoit 

Jfokn. Oiekian, 

Saniet ItfeCnrt^. 

Johft Dft»1a«.r Jfe»* *M«fc, 
MoritoetiterSwtltfc, f;4M,4 »«.n.««t«ll, 

Holf^icitPU Jat.Ktimandaon., John. i*htan, 



Toltn. M<lmond»on, Frannt fo»f 

6>o rttrbvr'titie, SmUfe K»(ti.<f, Wm 

*lt,in MaxtFy, tatir fun sftmffatt , rfn 

Wm I- load. W SJoan?, *>« 

■Wdhant / eo. *».• Pit«fc«.«., 

/■ft»t rftiti*»rt. Jias. Bofflfcer-, 

Utan, J«ht%»u.^fmtt, CitM.C«m)i'. 

:»d t<« Wo5tm»r»Uad Couo'v Uiiau 



Secondly. As we know it to be the Birthright privilege of every 
British subject (and of tbe people of Virginia as being such), 
founded on Eeason, Law, and Compact; that he cannot be legally 
tried, but by his peers ; and that he cannot be taxed, but by consent 
of a Parliament, in which he is represented by persons chosen by 
the people, and who themselves pay a part of the tax they impose 
on others. If therefore, any person or persons shall attempt, by 
any action or proceeding, to deprive this Colony of those funda- 
mental rights, we will immediately regard him or them, as the 
most dangerous enemy of the community; and we will go to any 
extremity, not only to prevent the success of such attempts, but to 
stigmatize and punish the offender. 

Thirdly. As the Stamp Act doas absolutely direct the property 
of the people to be taken from them without their consent ex- 
pressed by their representatives, and" as in many cases it deprives 
the British American Subject of his right to trial by jury; we do 
determine, af every hazard, and, paying no regard to danger or to 
death, we wiL exert every faculty, to prevent the execution of the 
said Stamp Act in any instance whatsoever within this Colony. 
And every abandoned wretch, who shall be so lost to virtue and 
public good, as wickedly to contribute to the introduction or fix- 
ture of the Stamp Act in this Colony, by using stampt paper, or 
by any other means, we will, with the utmost expedition, convince 
all such profligates that immediate danger and disgrace shall at- 
tend their prostitute purposes. , 

Fourtldy. That the last article may most surely and effectu- 
ally be executed, we engage to each other, that whenever it shall be 
known to any of this association, that any person is so conducting 
himself as to favor the introduction of the Stamp Act, that imme- 
diate notice shall be given to as many of the association as possible; 
and that every individual so informed, shall, with expedition, re- 
pair to a place of meeting to be appointed as near the scene of 
action as may be. 

Fifthly. Each associator shall do his true endeavor to obtain as 
many signers to this association, as he possibly can. 

Sixthly. If any attempt shall be made on the liberty or pro- 
perty of any associator for any a'ction or thing to be done in con- 
sequence of this agreement, we do most solemnly bind ourselves by 
the sacred engagements above entered into, at the risk of our lives 
and fortunes, to restore such associate to his liberty, and to protect 
him in the enjoyment of his property. 

In testimony of the good faith with which we resolve to execute 
this association we have this 27th day of February. 1766, in Vir- 
ginia, put our hands and seals hereto. 



Kichard Henry T.oe 
— AVill. Eobinson 
Lewis Willis 
Thos. Lud. Lee 
Samuel Washington 
Charles Washington 
Moore Fauntlero}- 
Francis Lightfoot Lee 
Thomas Jones 
Rodham Kenner 
Spencer M. Ball 
Richard Mitchell 
Joseph Murdoek 
Richd. Parker 
Sponce ]\[onroe 
John Watts 
Robt. Lovell 
John Blagge 
Charles Weeks 
Willm. Booth 
Geo. Turberville 
. Alvin Moxley 
Wm. Flood 
John Ballatinc. jiinr. 
William Lee 
Thos. Chilton 
Richard Bnckner 
Jos. Pierce 
Will. Chilton 
Jolm Williams 
William Sydnor 
John Monroe 
William Cocke 
Wiilm. Grayson 
Wm. Brockenbrough 
Saml. Selden 
Richd. I>e 
Daniel Tibbs 
Francis Thornton, jimr. 
Peter Rust 
John Lee jr. 
Francis Waring 
John Upshaw 

John S. Woodcock 

Robt. Wormeley Carter 

John Blackwell 

Winder S. Kenner 

Wm. Bronaugh 

Wm. Peirce 

John Berryman 

John Dickson 

John Broone 

Edwd. Sanford 

Charles Chilton 

Edward Sanford 

Daniel McCarty 

Jer. Rush 

Edwd. ]iansdell 

Townshend Dade 

John Ash ton 

W. Brent 

Francis Foushee 

John Smith jour. 

Wm. Ball 

Thos. Barnes 

Jos. Blackwell 

Reuben Meriwether 

Edw. Mountjoy 

Wm. J. Mountjoy 

Thos. Mountjoy 

John Mountjoy 

Gilbt. Campbell 

Jos. Lane 

John Beale junr. 

John Newton 

Will. Beale juni'. 

Clis. Mortimer 

John Edmondson jr. 

Charles Beale 

Peter Grant 

Thompson Mason 

Jon a. Beckwith 

Jas. Sanford 

John Belfield 

W. Smith 

John Augt. Washington 



Meriwether Smith 
Thos. Roane 
Jas. Edmondson 
Jas. Webb junr 
John Edmondson 
Jas. Banks 
Smith Young 
Laur. Washington 
W. Eoane 
Eieh. Hodges 
Jas. Upshaw 
Jas. Booker 
A. Montague 
Rich'd. Jeffries 
John Suggett 

Thos. Belfield 
Edgcomb Suggett 
Henry Francks 
John Bland junr. 
Jas. Emerson 
Thos. Logan 
Jo. Milliken 
Ebenezer Fisher 
Hancock Eustace 
John Richards 
Tiros. J ett 
Thos. Douglas 
Max Robinson 
John Orr." 

The Virginia Jlistorical Register and Literan/ Advertiser, 
edited by WiUiam Maxwell. Vol.' II (1849), pages 14-18. 

Carefully compared and corrected by 

Lawrence Washington. 

In 1764, when the liberties of the American people were men- 
aced by a .Stamp Tax, Virginia was among the first of the colonies 
to memorialize the King in opposition, and the only one to address 
to the House of Commons a remonstrance against the right of that 
body to enact such legislation. — History of the United States, 
Bancroft, Vol. III., page 93. 

The Stamp Act caused great opposition throughout America. 
'•'But,'' • says John Ffske, "formal defiance came first from Vir- 
ginia." — TJie American Revolution, Fiske, Vol. I., page 18. 

'"The Assembly of Virginia," says J. R. Green, "was the first 
to formally deny tlic right of the British Parliament to meddle 
with internal taxation and to demand the repeal of the Act.'' — A 
Short History of the English People, J. R. Green. 1883, page 735. 

"Thus," 'Says Mr. Bancroft, "Virginia rang the alarm bell for 
the continent." 


Famous Resolutions Passed by the Patriots of 


At the Courthouse, June 22, 1774, Claiming as a Eight to be 
Taxed Solely in Our Provincial Assembly by Rep- 
resentatives Freely Chosen by the People. 

When the Port of Boston ivas Shut up hy Act of Parliament and 
hy a Hostile English Fleet, the Munificence and Bounty of 
One People to Another — Virginia to Massachusettes. The 
Famous Resolutions of the Westmoreland County Commit- 
tee of Safety at the Courthouse, May 23, 1775, Denouncing 
Lord Dunmore, Governor, for Seizing the Poivder in the 
Magazine at Williamsburg, Va., and Lodging it on Board a 

Beautiful tribute of Senator George F. Hoar, of Massachusetts, 
to Virginia — the two oldest American States : 

"Seldom, divided in opinion — never in affection." 

Westmoreland County (Virginia) Eesolutions. 

At a respectable Meeting of the Freeholders and other Inhabi- 
tants of the County of Westmoreland, assembled, on due notice, at 
the Court House of the said Countv on Wednesday, the 22d of 
June, 1774. 

The Reverend Mr. Thomas Smith, Moderator. 

Several papers, containing the Proceedings of the late House 
of Burgesses of this Colony, and the subsequent determinations of 
the lat-e Repxesentatives after the House was dissolved, together 
with extracts of several Resolves of the Provinces of Massachusetts 
Bay, Maryland, &c., being read, the meeting proceeded seriously to 
consider the present dangerous and truly alarming crisis, when 
ruin is threatened to the ancient constitutional rights of North 
America, and came to the following resolves: 

1st. That to be taxed solely in our Provincial Assemblies, by 
Representatives freely chosen by the people, is a right that British 
subjects in America are entitled to, from natural justice, from the 
English Constitution, from Charters, and from a confirmation of 
these by usage, since the first establishment of these Colonies. 

2nd. That an endeavor to force submission from one Colony to 


the payment of taxes not so imposed, is a dangerous attack on the 
liberty and property of British America, and renders it indispen- 
sably necessary that all should firmly unite to resist the common 

3d. It is the opinion of this meeting, that the town of Boston, 
in our sister Colony of Massachusetts Bay, is now suffering in the 
common cause of North America, by having its harbour locked up, 
its commerce destroyed, and the property of many of its inhabi- 
tants violently taken from them, until they submit to taxes not 
imposed by their consent, and therefore this meeting resolve : 

4th. That the inhabitants of this county will most cordially 
and firmly join with the other counties in this Colony, and the 
other Colonies on this Continent, or the majority of them, after a 
short day, hereafter to be agreed on, to stop all exports to Great 
Britain and the West Indies, and all imports from thence, until, 
as well the Act of Parliament, entitled "An Act to discontinue, in 
such manner and for such time as are therein mentioned, the 
landing and discharging, lading, and shipping of goods, wares, 
and merchandise, at the town and within the harbour of Boston, 
in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America" as the 
several Acts laying duties on America for the purpose of raising a 
revenue, and all the acts of the British Legislature made against 
our brothers of Massachusetts Bay, in consequence of their just op- 
position to the said Eevenue Acts, are repealed; and it is the 
opinion of this meeting, that such a non-importing and non-ex- 
porting plan should be quickly entered upon, as well on the evident 
principle of self-preservation, as to relieve our suffering country- 
men and fellow-subjects in Boston, and to restore between Great 
Britain and America that harmony so beneficial to the whole Em- 
pire, and so ardently desired by all America. 

5th. It IS the opinion of this meeting that the gentlemen of 
the law should not (as long as the non-exportation agreement sub- 
sists) bring any Avrit for the recovery of debt, or to push to a 
conclusion any 'such suit already brought, it being utterly incon- 
sistent with a non-exportation plan that judgment should be given 
against those who are dep.rived. of means of paying. 

6th. That so soon as the non-exportation agreement begins, we 
will, every man of us, keep our produce, whether tobacco, corn, 
wheat, or anything else, unsold, on our own respective plantations, 
and not carry, or suffer them to be carried, to any public ware- 
house or landing place, except of grain; where the same be so 
done, an oath being first made that such grain is for the use of, 
or consumption of. this or any other Colony in North America, and 


not for exportation from the Continent whilst the said agreement 
subsists. And this is the more necessary to prevent a few design- 
ing persons from engrossing and buying up our tobacco, grain, &c., 
when they are low in value, in order to avail themselves of the very 
high price that those articles must bear when the ports are open, 
and foreign markets empty. 

7th. This meeting do heartily concur with the late Eepresenta- 
tive body of this country to disuse tea, and not purchase any other 
commodity of the East Indies, except saltpetre, until the grievances 
of America are redressed. 

8th. We do most heartily concur in these preceding Kesolves, 
and will, to the utmost of our power, lake care that, they arc car- 
ried into execution; and that we will regard every man as in- 
famous who now agree to, and shall hereafter make a breach of, 
all or any of them, subject, however to such future alterations as 
shall be judged expedient, at a general meeting of Deputies from 
the several parts of this Colony, or a general Congress of all the 

9th. We do appoint Eichard Henry Lee, and Eichard Lee, 
esquires, the late representatives of this county, to attend the gen- 
eral meeting of Deputies from all the icounties ; and we desire that 
they do exert their best abilities to get these our earnest desires, 
for the security of public liberty, assented to. 

10th. And as it may happen that tlie Assembly now called to 
meet on the 11th of August, may be porogued to a future day, and 
many of the Deputies appointed to meet on the 1st of August, 
trusting to the certainty of meeting in Assembly on the 11th, may 
fail to attend on the 1st, by which means decisive injury may arise 
to the common cause of liberty, by the general sense of the country 
not being early known at this dangerous crisis of American free- 
dom, we do, therefore, direct that our Deputies now chosen fail not 
to attend at Williamsburg, on the said 1st of August; and it is our 
earnest wish that the Deputies from other counties be directed to 
do the same, for the reasons above assigned. 

11th. That the clerk do forthwith transmit the proceedings of 
this day to the press, and request the Printers to publish them 
without delay. 

By order of the meeting, 

James Davenport, ClerJc. 

The above is a true copy of what is printed in American 
Archives, Fourth Series, Vol. I., page 438. 

H. E. McIlwaine, 

Librarian Virginia State Lihrary. 
July 16, 1910. 

^'.T"-^'--^-l^- . ,„. ,^_ ,^^ ■ ■ "i^l 

« i»' 


^^ This Tablet is erected as a tribute. ^^ 

JTLRSr. l^lic patriot* of "Westinorcland who ^i^isembled at the Conrtliou*? 
tliereof on Wcdncsday.the 22nd,day of June 177*< ReverendThomas Smith. 
Modcratorl'seriousl-y to consider the present danferous and truly alarming 
crisis. where ruin is threatened to the ancient Constiixitional rights of 'North 
America, ajid came to THE FOLLOWING RESOLVES: ' ' 

/»^."That to be tajed solely jn owr Provincial Aisemblies by Representatives 
freely chosen by the people, i« a ri jht that British, subjects in America 
arc entitled to.from natura.1 justice. from the English Coajstitution. 
from Chaxters . aud from a confirmation, of these by usa^e, since 
the first establisbnaent of these Colonics." 

Zn^.'Thai an endeavor to forcp submission fFom oike Colony to the 
payment of taxe« not so imposed, is a dangerous attack on the 
liberty and property of British America. and remders it indispensably 
necessary that all should firmly un.ite tore gist the Cooimon danger." 

3rit'ltia the opinion ofthismeetin^.that the townof Bii>ston.ii> our sister 
Colony of "Massachusetts now suffeTin«[ in the Comtuon cause 
of^orth America, by having its harbour locked up.its Conmxiaerce 
destroyed, and the property of many of its inliabitaats violently taken 
from them, until they submit to taxes not imposed by their consent. 
"IJIlLortke rtsetutiens {these being fiari) found in 'American. 
^rc/iiues "4t/i. series Vol. i. PASS recorded itt Or-der Book Circuii 
Courl orWtsitnortland i9i0 Jfo. SP i30^ 

S£COiVi?.Tothe Westmorela.nd County Coimmiltec of Safety at a 
meeting in the Court-house thereof.on Tuesday, tbe 3l8t,day 
of Ja.nvia.ry i775,wljo after Richard Henry Lee, and Richard lee, 
Estjuires, -were uua.ilimously Chosen Delegates to ill e Colony 
Convention in the town of Richmond on the SOtb, of Marcb zke:«.tj 
instruiotcd the sameVthat it is ourfirm determination, to stand or 
fall with the liberties of our Country."'.^// of the Resolxiiions 
(these being jtari) found in'AmerimnJlTchivti '4th, Series fitl.i P.1203 
Trecorded. in the Order Book Circuit Court of YHitmoreland i9i0 Jfo.i.P. /33 . 

THIRD-To tha Westmoreland County Committee of Safety at a meeting at 
tbeCoHrt-l)oasi>thoreof on the 23rd. day of May 1773(Revereajdl Thomas 
Smi th, Chairman) -who declared ','The seixin^ the pawder. confessedly placed 
in th« Ma.|aiine for the defence and prtrtection of this Colony, h% 
order of his E\cellency<Lord Dvininor e i the Covemour.was a step 
hy no means to be justified, even upon the supposition of its being 
lodged there from on board a Man-of-War.ashis Lordship has 
in his proclamation asserted. althow^h in bis verbal auswer 
.to tbe Address oftbe Citiiens of Williaulsbnr«;h,hc has tacitly 
acknovfledrfed the powder to bclon^ to tbe Cosmt'ry by aoreeino 
to deliver it up: that is, the samepov»der thpy cleruanded as the*^ 
Country*; and webavebeeu informed that tb«! Country bad 
poTwder in tne Magazine. which cannot nowb^ found there; We 
therefore consider the renaoviii<5 tbe pov»der privately. *ud 
vfhen that part of the Country wa&.as his LorclshipCoufesses, 
ii» a very critical situation. to be apart of that cruel and 
detpr mined plan of wricked administration io enslave the Colonies 
by fir.«tdpprivinf them of tbe means of resistance .'l/T/t o/'^^f 
TusolutiorLsfilxese hting }turt I f>a^tTnd in"jlnierican Jlrrhii.Ff. "• 
4tb.5er.«,.Vo(.2.P. €82 r<.coi-rf»rf «x Or<<,r Boo/k We,im«rr««>,,t 
Circuit Court i9i0 Ab.S.i*. idai 

|fi|aDonMted to Westmoreland County thi-ou^h the^MV 
Circuit Court. bv Dr. AHeriiou S'.G«rij.eH . ^W~ 
Hot Springs. ArUwiisas . 
erratum: •mtt'>tet"n>fri-rin.a ««"ollBeR BOOK" 


^Vl^sT:\IORELA^'D CouxTY (A'irginia) Committee. 

At a ^Meeting of the Freeholder.-, after due notice, at Westmore- 
land Court llou'se, on Tuesday, the 31st day of January, 1775, 
Richard Henry Lee and Richard Lee, Esquires, were unanimously 
chosen Delegates to represent this County in Colony Convention, 
at the Town of Richmond, in Henrico County, on the 20th of 
Marcli next. 

After they were chosen, the following Instructions were pub- 
lickly read to them by the desire of the people : 

To Richard Henry Lee and Richard Lee, Esquires: 

The Freeholders of Westmoreland County having often experi- 
enced your fidelity, abilities, and firm attachment to the cause of 
liberty, have now appointed you to represent them in a Colony 
Convention proposed to be held at the Town of Richmond, on the 
20th of March next; and as we are convinlced, from the maturest 
deliberation, that the safety and happiness of JSTorth America de- 
pend on the united wisdom of its Councils, we have no doubt you 
will comply, on your parts, with the recommendation of the late 
Continental Congress, to appoint Deputies from this Colony to 
meet in Philadelphia on the 10th day of May next, unless the re- 
dress of American Grievances be obtained before that time; and as 
it is our 'firm determination to stand or fall with the liberties of 
our country, we desire that you may consider the people of West- 
moreland as ready and willing to join witli their countrymen in 
the execution of 'sucli measures as may appear to the majority of 
their Deputies assembled at Richmond, wise and neleessary to 
secure and perpetuate the ancient,- just, and legal rights of this 
Colony and of British America. 

At the same time and place the following gentlemen were 
chosen a committee to 'see the Association faithfully observed in 
. this County, according to the direction of the Continental Con- 
gress: the Beverend Mr. Thomas Smith, Philip Smith, Richard 
Henry Lee, John Augustin Washington, John Turberville, Daniel 
McCarty, William Pierce, Joseph Pierce, Thomas Chilton, William 
Bernard. Richard Parker, Beckwith Butler, Fleet Cox, Daniel 
Tebbs, C4eorge Steptoe, John Ashton, William ISTelson, Richard 
Buckner, Burdett Ashton, Benedict Middleton, George Turberville, 
John Middleton, William Bankhead, John Martin, Joseph Fox, 
John Ashton, Jr., Samuel Rust. William_E£XJquiiaai. James Daven- 
port, Woffendel Kendel, Daniel Fitzhugh, Benjamin Weeks, Rich- 
ard Lee, Thomas Fisher, and Edward Sandford. 

James Davenport, Clerk. 


The above is a true copy of what is printed on page 1203 of 
American Archives, Fourth Series, Vol. I. 

H. R. McIlwaine, 
Librarian Virginia State Library. 
July 16, 1910. 

Westmoreland County (Virginia) Committee, 

At a Meeting held for Westmoreland County, February 8, 1775, 
Ordered, That every itinerant or casual Vender of Goods, who 
shall be found selling Goods in the County, be obliged to produce 
proof to the Committee, that the said Goods were imported into 
North America before the first day of February, 1775, according 
to the directions of the Continental Congress. 

James Davenport^ ClerJi. 

The above is a true copy of what is printed on page 1222 of 
American Archives, Fourth Series, Vol. 1. 

H. R. McIlwaine^ 
Librarian Virginia State Library. 
July 16. 1910. 

Westmoreland County (Virginia) Committee. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Westmoreland County, held 
at the Court-House the 23d of May, 1775, present the Rev. Thomas 
Smith, Chairman, and fifteen other members of said Committee. 

This Committee having taken into consideration the Address of 
the citizens of Williamsburgh, presented to his Excellency the Gov- 
ernour, on the 21st of Apiril last, and his Excellency's verbal an- 
swer thereto, as also his Lordship's Speech to the Council, the 2d 
of May, and the Proclamation issued the next day, in consequence 
of the advice given him by a majority of the said Council, look 
upon themselves as indespensably bound to declare their sentiments 
thereon, as well to expose the inimical measures of men in high 
otficc. for a long time steadily pursued against the just rights of 
? loyal people, as to take ofE the odium they have endeavoured by 
some late proceedings to fix upon this Colony. 

The seizing the powder, confessedly placed in the Magazine for 
the defense and protection of this Colony, by order of his Excel- 
lency the Govcrnour, was a step by no means to be justified, even 
upon the supposition of its being lodged there from on board a 
man-of-war, as his Lordship has in his Proclamation asserted, 
althouffli in his verbal answer to the Address of the citizens of 


Williamsburgli, he has tacitly aeknowledged the powder to belong 
to the Country, by agreeing to deliver it np : that is, the same 
powder they demanded as the country's ; and we have been in- 
formed that the Country had powder in the Magazine, which can- 
not now^ be found there : We therefore consider the removing the 
powder privately, and when that part of the Country was, as his 
Lordship confesses, in a very critical situation, to be a part of that 
cruel and determined plan of wicked administration to enslave the 
Colonies, by first depriving them of the means of resistance, and 
do Eesolve, 

1st. That the dissatisfaction discovered by the people of this 
Country, and late commotions raised in some parts thereof, pro- 
ceeded, not as his Lordship in his Proclamation has injuriously 
and inimically charged, from a disaffection to His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment, or to a design of changing the form thereof, but from a 
well-grounded alarm, occasioned altogether by the Governour's late 
conduct, which clearly evinced his steady pursuit of the above 
mentioned ministerial plan to enslave us. 

2d. That so much of His Excellency's Proclamation which de- 
clares "the real grievances of the Colony can be only obtained by 
loyal and constitutional application," is an insult to the under- 
standing of mankind, inasmuch as it is notorious that this and the 
other Colonies upon the Continent have repeatedly heretofore made 
those applications, which have ever been treated with contumely, 
and as his Lordship, since the late unhappy differences between 
Great Britain and the Colonies have subsisted, hath deprived us of 
the constitutional mode of application, by refusing to have an 

3d. That so far from endeavouring or desiring to subvert our 
ancient, and to erect a new form of Government, we will, at the 
risk of our lives and fortunes, support and defend it, as it existed 
and v^as exercised until the year 1763, and that his Lordship, by 
misrepresenting the good people of this Colony, as well in his let- 
ter to the British Minister as in his late Proclamation, has justly 
forfeited their confidence. 

4th. That His Majesty's Council, who advised the Proclamation 
before-mentioned have not acted as they were bound to do from 
their station in Government, which ought to have led them to be 
mediators between the first Majestrate and the people, rather than 
to join in fixing an unjust and cruel stigma on their fellow-sub- 


5th. That the thanks of this Committee are justly due to the 
Delegates of the late Continental Congress, and to the Delegates 
from this Colony particularly, for their prudent, wise, and active 
conduct, in asserting the liberties of America; and that design of 
Government which, in some instances, we are informed, has already 
been carried into execution, to deprive them of all offices, civil and 
military, tends manifestly to disturb the minds of the people in 
general ; and that we consider every person advising such a measure, 
or wlio shall accept of any office or preferment, of which any of 
the noble asserters of American liberty have been deprived, as an 
enemy to this Country. 

Ordered, That the Clerk transmit a copy of the foregoing Reso- 
lutions to the Printer as soon as conveniently may be. in order 
that the same may be published in the Gazette. 

James Davenport, Clerk Com'tee. 

At a committee held for Westmoreland County, May 33, 1775, 
Resolved, That every Merchant or Factor who shall import 
European Goods into this County from any other Colony or Dis- 
trict shall, before he be permitted to sell such Goods, produce to 
the Cliairraau, or any one of the Committee, a certificate from the 
Committee of the Colony, County, or District from whence such 
Goods were purchased, of their having been imported agreeable to 
the terms of the Association of the Continental Congress. 

James Davenport, Clerk. 

The above is a true copy of what appears in American Archives. 
Fourth Series, Vol. II., p." 682. 

H. R. McIlwaine, 

Librarian of the Virginia State Library. 
July 16, 1910. 

1910, October IStli, Received and truly entered. 

M. L. lliiTT, Clerk 
of the Circuit Court of Westmoreland Co.. Va. 

We give the text of the brilliant address of Senator George F. 
Hoar, of Massachusetts, before the Virginia Bar Association at 
Old Point, July, 1898: 

T am not va^i (Miouyh lo take this invitation from the famous 
H;ir of your fniiious Conimoinvealth as a inoro personal compliment. 


I like better to think of it as a token of the willingness of Vir- 
ginia to renew the old relations of esteem and honor which bound 
your people to those of Massachusetts when the two were the 
leaders in the struggle for independence, when John Adams and 
Sam Adams sat in Council with Jefferson and Henry and Lee; 
when the voice of Massachusetts summoned Washington to the head 
of the armies, and Marshall to the judgment seat; when Morgan's 
riflemen marched from Winchester to Cambridge in twenty-one 
days to help drive the invader from the Bay State, and when these 
two great States were seldom divided in opinion — never in affec- 

These two States, so like in their difference, so friendly even 
in their encounters, so fast bound even when they seem most asun- 
der, are, as I think, destined by God for leadership soraevhere. I 
thank Him — we can all thank Him — that He permits us to believe 
that that leadership is hereafter to be exercised on a scale worthy 
of their origin and worthy of the training He has given them. 
Nothing smaller than a continent will hold the people who follow 
where they lead. When the Massachusetts boy reads the history of 
Virginia. It will be with the property of a countryman in her 
fame. Wlien the Virginian hears the anthem of Niagara, he will 
Icnow the music as his own. When he comes to Boston, the mighty 
spirits that haunt Faneuil Hall will hear, well pleaded, a footstep 
which sounds like that of the companions and comrade-; with which, 
in danger and in tr'uinph, they were so familiar of old. 

As is natural for communities of high spirit, independent in 
thought, of varying employment and interest, they have had their 
differences. But if you take a broad survey of human history, it 
will be hard for you to find tw^o peoples more alike. They are the 
two oldest American States. It was but four years from the land- 
ing at Jamestown to the landing at Plymouth. Each has been, in 
its own way, a leader. Each has been the mother of great States. 
Each is without a rival in history, except the other, in the genius for 
framing Constitutions and the great statutes which, like Consti- 
tutions, lie at the foundation of all government. When Virginia 
framed the 'first written Constitution, unless we except the compact 
on board the Mcn/fozver, ever known among men, her leaders studied 
the history and delighted to consult the statesmen of Massachusetts. 
"Would to God." writes Patrick Henry to John Adams from Wil- 
liamsburg, where tlie Constitutional Convention of Virginia was sit- 
ting, ''would to God you and your Sam Adams were here. We should 
think we had attained perfection if we had your approval." \Vhen 
a Virginian pen drafted the Declaration of Independence, Massa- 


chusetts furnished its great advocate on the floor. When Virginia 
produced Washington, Massachusetts called him to the head of the 
arjny. When A^irginia gave Marshall to jurisprudence, it was John 
Adams, of Massachusetts, who summoned him to his exalted seat. 
The men who have moulded the history of each sprung from the 
same great race from which they inherited the sense of duty and 
the instinct of honor. Both have always delighted in the discus- 
sion of the profoundest principles in government, in theology, and 
in morals. Eich as have been their annals in names illustrious in 
civil life, the history of each has been largely a military history. 

There is no more touching story of the munifieence and bounty 
of one people to another than that of Virginia to Massachusetts 
M'hen the port of Boston was shut up by act of Parliament and by 
a hostile English fleet. I dare say generous Virginia has disdained 
to remember the transaction. Massachusetts never will forget it. 
Little had happened which bore hardly upon Virginia. You were 
an agricultural people. The great grievance of New England after 
all was not taxation, but the suppression of her manufacture. 
There was no personal suffering here. It was only the love of lib- 
eity that inspired the generous people of the Old Dominion to 
stand by Massachusetts. 

The statute of 14 George III., known as the Boston Port Bill, 
entitled, "An Act to Discontinue in Such Manner and for Such 
Time as are Therein Mentioned, the Landing and Discharging, the 
Lading or Shipping of Goods, Wares, Merchandise at the Town and 
Within the Harbor of Boston in the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay," was enacted by the British Parliament in March, 1774. It 
was meant to punish the people of Boston for their unlawful re- 
sistance to the tea tax and to compel the province to submission. 
"If you pass this act with tolerable unanimity," said Lord Mans- 
field, "Boston will submit, and all will end in victory without carn- 
age." The act took effect at 12 o'clock on the 1st of June, 1774. 
Boston depended almost wholly on her commerce. In a few weeks 
business was paralyzed, and the whole town was suffering. But 
George III. and his councillors had Virginia as well as Massachu- 
setts to reckon with. Her generous people rose as one man. Not 
only letters of sympathy came pouring in to the selectmen of Bos- 
ton, but there came substantial contributions of money and food, 
which, considering the poverty of the time and the difficulty of 
communication and transport, are almost without a parallel in his- 
tory. The House of Burgesses appointed a day of fasting and 
prayer, and ordered "that the members do attend in their places to 
proceed with the Speaker and the Mace to Church for the purposes 


But they did not leave Boston to fast. Meetings were held all 
over the Old Dominion. In Fairfax county George Washington 
was chairman and headed the subscription with £50. The Conven- 
tion over u'hich he presided recommended subscriptions in every 
county in Virginia. Mason ordered his children to keep the day 
strictly and to attend church clad in mourning. In Westmoreland 
county John Augustine Washington was chairman. He enclosed 
in his letter a bill of lading for 1,092 bushels of grain. The gen- 
erous flame spread among the backwoodsmen. Not only from tide- 
M^ater, but from over the mountains, where the roads were little 
better than Indian trails, the farmers denied themselves to make 
their generous gifts. Their wagons thronged all the roads, as they 
brought their gifts of corn and grain to tidewater. Among the 
committees by which they were forwarded are the renowned Vir- 
ginia names — some of them renowned in every generation — Upshaw 
and Beverley and Eitchie and Lee and Randolph and Watkins and 
Carey and Archer. But for this relief, in which Virginia was the 
leader and example to the other Colonies, Boston, as Sam Adams 
declared, must have been starved and have submitted to degrading 

The Norfolk committee say in their letter: "It is with pleasure 
we can inform you of the cheerful accession of the trading in- 
terest of this Colony to the association of the Continental Congress. 
We wish you perseverance, moderation, firmness, and success in 
this grand contest, which we view as our own in every respect." 

Virginia and Massachusetts have moved across the continent 
in parallel lines. Each has learned much from the other. What 
each has learned and what each has originated have been taught 
to many new commonwealths as to docile pupils. I will not under- 
take to discuss to which, in this lofty ancl generous rivalry, should 
be awarded the pre-eminence. Indeed, it would be hard to settle 
that question unless we could settle the question, impossible of 
solution, which owes most to the other. But I am frank to confess 
that, whatever natural partiality may lead her sons to claim for 
Massachusetts, the world will be very slow to admit that among 
the men who have been founders of States in Christian liberty and 
law, there will be found anywhere the equals to the four names of 
Jefferson, Marshall, Madison, and Henry, to say nothing of the 
supreme name of Washington. As the old monk said of King 
Arthur: ''The old world knows not his peer; nor will the future 
show us his equal; he alone towers over other kings, better than 
the past ones and greater than those that are to be." 

No man, when he utters his admiration for the excellence of 


woman, brings his own mother into the comparison. It would be 
singularly nnbeeoming for any son of Massachusetts to be speak- 
ing or thinking of the rank w^hich belongs to her in history on an 
occasion like this. But saving, therefore, my allegiance to her, I 
affirm without hesitation that the history of no other civilized com- 
munity on earth of like numbers, since Athens, for a like period, 
can be compared with that of Virginia from 1765 or 1770 down 
to 1825. ^Vhat her gallant soldier, Henry Lee, said of her most 
illustrious son may well be said of her: First in war, first in peace. 
What a constellation then rose upon the sky ! The list of her 
great names of that wonderful period is like a catalogue of the 
fixed stars. For all time the American youth who would learn 
the principles of liberty protected by law ; who would learn how to 
frame constitutions and statutes: who would seek models of the 
character of the patriot, of the statesman, of the gentleman, of 
the soldier, may seek instruction from her — may study her history 
as in a great university. 

One thing is remarkable in the history of Virginia. It is true, 
I think, of no other American State. jSTotwithstanding the splendid 
constellation of burning and blazing names which she gave to the 
country in the period of the devolution and of framing and in- 
augurating the Constitution, if by some miracle they had been 
gathered together in one room, we will say in the year 1770, or in 
1780, and had perished in one calamity, Virginia could have sup- 
plied their places and have maintained almost entirely the same 
pre-eminence. I do not know that she could have furnished a 
second Marshall or a second Washington, but the substance of 
what she accomplished for America and for mankind in those great 
days she would have accomplished still. She was like a country 
made up of rolling hills, where, if those which bound the horizon 
were levelled, other ranges would still appear beyond and beyond. 

The mouth of the James river is the gateway through which 
civilization and freedom entered this continent. The Spaniard 
and the Frenchman, and perhap- the Norseman had been in 
America before. But when Jamestown was planted the English- 
man came. It is no matter what was his political creed or his reli- 
gious creed — wliether Cavalier or Roundhead, Puritan or Church- 
man — ^the emigrant was an Englishman, and every Englisljinan 
then and since held the faith that liberty was his of right, and 
when liberty is put on the ground of right it implies the assertion 
that government must be founded on right, and that liberty belongs 
to other men also; and that implies government by law. Nullum 
jus sine officio: Nullum oMcium sine jure. 


Other races have furnished great law givers, great writers on 
jurisprudence and a few great judges. But the sense of the obli- 
gation of law as that upon which depends individual right, the 
feeling that life, liberty, property are not privileges but rights 
whose security to the individual depends upon his own respect for 
them as of right belonging to other men also, a sense pervading 
all classes in the State, is peculiar to the Englishman and the 
American alone. It is this which is the security of our mighty 
mother and of her mighty daughter against the decay which has 
attended alike the empires and the republics of the past. It is 
for this that England will be remembered if she shall perish. 

Whatever harmonies of law 

The growing world assume, 
Thy work is thine; the single note 
Of that deep chord which Hampton smote 

Shall vibrate to the doom. 

The people of Virginia have ever been renowned for two qual- 
ities — marks of a great and noble nature — hospitality and courage. 
Now, this virtue of hospitality, and this virtue of courage as pro- 
duced by men of generous nature, mean something more than a 
provision for physical wants or than a readiness for physical en- 
counter with an antagonist. The true hospitality to a man is a 
hospitality to his thought; and the highest courage is a readiness 
for an encounter of thoughts." — The Reports Virginia State Bar 
Association, Vol. XL, 1898, pp. 247—. 

The writer of this little booklet, in reading the above address of 
Senator Hoar, cannot help feeling and believing that the comity 
and alfection between these ancient commonwealths have been kept 
up and beautifully recognized in the brilliant speech of Senator 
Lodge of Massachusetts in February, 1911, in the United States 
Senate on the death of Senator Daniel of Virginia : 

He loved his country and he loved her history. He cherished 
with reverence her institutions and her traditions. It could not 
be otherwise, for he was a Virginian, and the history and traditions 
of his own State outran all the rest. Others may disregard the 
past or speak lightly of it, but no Virginian ever can, and Senator 
Daniel was a Virginian of Virginians. 

He believed, as I am sure most thoughtful men believe, that 
the nation or the people who cared naught for their past would 
themselves leave nothing for their posterity to emulate or to re- 


member. He had a great tradition to sustain. He represented 
the State where the first permanent English settlement was 
founded. He represented tlie State of George Washington. 

I will repeat here what I have said elsewhere, that, except in 
the golden age of Athens, I do not think that any community of 
equal size, only a few thousands in reality, lias produced in an 
equall}' brief time as much ability as was produced by the Vir- 
ginian planters at the period of the American Revolution. Wash- 
ington and Marshall, Jefferson and Madison, Patrick Henry, the 
Lees and the Randolphs, Masons and Wythe- — what a list it is of 
soldiers and statesmen, of orators and lawyers. The responsibility 
of representing such a past and such a tradition is as great as the 
honor. Senator Daniel never forgot either the honor or the re- 
sponsibility. Can more be said in his praise than' that he worthily 
guarded the one and sustained the other ? 

The Civil War brouglit many tragedies to North and South 
alike. None greater, certainly, than the division of Virginia. To 
a State with such a history, with such memories and such tradi- 
tions, there was a peculiar cruelty in such a fate. Virginia alone 
among the States has so suffered. Other wounds have healed. The 
land that -was rent in twain is one again. The old enmities have 
grown cold; the old friendships and affections are once more warm 
and strong as they were at the beginning. But the wound which 
the war dealt to Virginia can never be healed. There and there 
alone the past can not be restored. One bows to the inevitable, 
but as a lover of my country and my country's past I have felt a 
deep pride in the history of Virginia, in which I, as an American, 
had a right to share, and I have always sorrowed that an inexorable 
destiny had severed that land where so many brave and shining 
memories were garnered up. That tliought was often in my mind 
as I looked at Senator Daniel in this Chamber. Not only did he 
fitly and highly represent the great past, with all its memories and 
traditions, but he also represented the tragedy, as great as the his- 
tory, which had fallen upon Virginia to the cause in which she 
believed and to which in her devotion she had given her all, even 
a part of herself. The maimed soldier with scars which com- 
manded the admiration of the world finely typified his great State 
in her sorrows and her losses as in her glories and her pride. — Con- 
gressional Fecord, Gist Congress, 3rd Session, p. 3111. 


Tribute to Washington by Lord Brougham and 
Lord Byron. 

Some of the Sayings of Wasliington — His Anti-Slavery Senti- 
ments — Some Witticisms Concerning Him — }Yashi7igton and 
Lee, the Castor and Pollux, the Tivo Twin Stars. 

In this little booklet of res disjecta membra we have not 
the space, if we so desired, to give the names of the great .men 
of Westmoreland, much less their biographical sketches, who 
have embellished her history. In the words of Senator Hoar, 
of Massachusetts : "What a constellation then arose upon the 
sky ! The list of her great names of that wonderful period 
is like a catalogue of fixed stars.'^ We can not even give 
full sketches of Washington and Lee, two of the greatest fig- 
ures in American history, and two of the greatest soldiers in the 
history of the English speaking people. The reader is familiar 
with the events of their lives. We shall only insert extracts from 
the most distinguished sources. Washington and lee — the Castor 
and Pollux of the gallery — the two twin stars that brilliantly shine 
in the firmament, and the most exalted figures of the world's his- 

Safe comes the ship to haven, 

Through billows and through gales, 

If once the Great Twin Brethren, 
Sit shining on the sails. 

Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Tiome. 


The grandest tributes ever paid to mortal man have been ren- 
dered by England's most illustrious representatives to Washington 
and echoed by the most eminent men in every other civilized land. 

First read the grand tributes of ISTapoleon Bonaparte, of Talley- 
rand as Minister of Foreign Affairs for France, of Gladstone, M. 
Guizot, and others. Even China called him "peerless" 

But the proudest tribute is that of Americans who cherish the 
splendid character and immortal Heeds of "The Father of His 


Country." How exquisite and toncliingly eloquent Governor Henry 
Lee on the death of Washington, Eufus Choate on the birthday of 
Washington, George Wm. Curtis on the value of Washington, and 
Chauncey M. Depew on the majestic eminence of Washington. 
Then the opinions of Albert Barnes, D. D., William E. Channing, 
and George W. P. Custis. Then the histories by Chief Justice 
Marshall, Jared Sparks, the Fords, and still later the histories of 
Henry Cabot Lodge, the present brilliant Senator from Massa- 
chusetts, and Woodrow Wilson, late of Princeton, and now Governor 
of New Jersey, the rising star of American statesmanship, bringing 
us in closer touch with the true Washington. 

We insert the tribute paid fo the character of Washington by 
Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor of England, where he contrasts 
him with Napoleon: 

How grateful the relief which the friend of mankind, the lover 
of virtue experiences when, turning from the contemplation of 
such a character, his eye rests upon the greatest man of our own or 
any other age. ... In Washington we truly behold a mar- 
vellous contrast to almost every one of the endowments and the 
vices which we have been contemplating; and which are so well 
fitted to excite a mingled admiration, and sorrow, and abhorrence. 
With none of that brilliant genius which dazzles ordinary minds; 
with not even any remarkable quickness of apprehension; with 
knowledge less than almost all persons in the middle ranks, and 
many well educated of the humbler class possess, this eminent person 
is presented to our observation clothed with attributes as modest, 
as unpretending, as little calculated to strike, or astonish, as if he 
had passed through some secluded region of private life. But he 
had a judgment sure and sound; a steadiness of mind which never 
suffered any passion, or even any Reeling to ruffle its calm; a 
strength of understanding worked, rather than forced its way 
through all obstacles — removing or avoiding rather than overleap- 
ing them. His courage, whether in battle or in council, was as 
perfect as might be expected from this pure and steady temper of 
soul. A ]3erfectly just man, with a thoroughly firm resolution 
never to be misled by others, any more than by others to be over- 
awed ; never to be seduced, or betrayed, or hurried away by his own 
weakness, or self-delusions, any more than by other men's arts; 
nor even to be disheartened by the most complicated difficulties, 
any more than be spoilt on the giddy heights of fortune — such was 
this great man — whether we regarS him alone sustaining the whole 
weight of campaigns all but desperate, or gloriously terminating a 







V ! 

' ^^ A 











just warfare by his resources arfd his courage ; presiding over the 
jarring elements of his political council, alike deaf to the storms of 
all extremes — or directing the formation of a new government for 
a great people, the first time so vast an experiment had been tried 
by man; or finally retiring from the supreme power to which his 
virtue had raised him over the nation he had created and whose 
destinies he had guided as long as his aid was required — retired 
with the veneration of all parties, of all nations, of all mankind, 
in order that the rights of men might be preserved, and that his 
example might never be appealed to by vulgar tyrants. 

This is the consummate glory of the great American; a trium- 
phant warrior, where the most sanguine had a right to despair; a 
successful ruler in all the difficulties of a course wholly untried; 
but a warrior whose sword only left its sheath when the first law 
of our nature commanded it to be drawn; and a ruler who, having 
tasted of supreme power, gently and unostentatiously desired that 
the cup might pass from him, nor would suffer more to wet his lips 
than the most solemn and sacred duty to his country and his God 
required ! 

To his latest breath did this great patriot maintain the noble 
character of a captain, the patron of peace; and a statesman, the 
friend of justice. Dying, he bequeathed to his heirs the sword 
he had worn in the war for liberty, charging them "never to take 
it from the scabbard but in self defence, or in defence of their coun- 
try and her freedom," and commanding them that when it should 
thus be drawn, they should never sheath it, nor ever give it up, but 
prefer falling with it in their hands to the relinquishment thereof — 
words the majesty and simple eloquence of which are not surpassed 
in the oratory of Athens and Eome. 

It will be the duty of the historian and the sage in all ages to 
omit no occasion of commemorating this illustrious man, and until 
time shall be no more, will be a test of the progress which our race 
has made in wisdom and in virtue, to be derived from the venera- 
tion paid to the immortal name of Washington ! 

Byron pays homage to Washington repeatedly in his poems, and 
wrote of him that, "To be the first man (not the Dictator) , not the 
Seylla, but the Washington, or Aristides, the leader in talent and 
truth, is to be next to the Divinity." We have not space to quote 
from the fourth canto of "Childe Harold," "The Age of Bronze," 
''Don Juan," Canto VIII., 5, nor Canto IX. of "Don Juan," but 
we give the last stanza in his "Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte" : 


*'Where may the wearied eye repose 
When gazing on the great, 
Where neither guilty glory glows, 

ISTor despicable state? 
Yes, one — the first — the last — the best — 
The Cincinnatus of the West, 

Whom envy dare not hate. 
Bequeath the name of Washington, 
To make man blush there was but one !" 

The Anti-Slavery Sentiments of George Washington. 

George Washington, writing in 1786, to Eobert Morris, of Phil- 
adelphia, after alluding to an Anti-Slavery Society of Quakers in 
that city and suggesting that unless their practices were discon- 
tinued, "None of those whose misfortune it is to have slaves as 
attendants will visit the city if they can possibly avoid it," con- 
tinues : 

"I hope it will not be conceived from these observations that it 
is my wish to hold the unhappy people, who are the subjects of this 
letter in slavery. I can only say that there is not a man living 
who wishes more sincerely than I do to see a plan adopted for the 
abolition of it. But there is only one proper and effectual mode by 
which it can be accomplished, and that is by legislative authority; 
and this, as far as my suffrage will go shall never be wanting." 

Writing in the same year to John F. Mercer, he said : 

"I never mean, unless some particular circumstance shall com- 
pel me to it, to possess another slave by purchase, it being among 
my first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in this 
country may be abolished by law." — Virginm's Attitude Toward 
Slavery and Secession. Munford, p. 83. The Writings of Wash- 
ington, Marshall. Vol. IX., p. 159. 

Extract from the will of George Washington, dated July 9, 
1799, recorded in the clerk's office of Fairfax county: 

"Upon the decease of my wife, it is my will and desire that all 
the slaves whom I hold in my own right shall receive their freedom. 
To emancipate them during her lifetime would, though earnestly 
wished by me, be attended with such msuperable difficulties on ac- 
count of their intermixture by marriage with the dower negroes as 
to excite the most painful sensations, if not disagreeable eonse- 


quences to tlic latter, while both descriptions are in the occupancy 
of the same pi-oprietor ; it not being in iliv power under the tenure 
by which the dower ne.groes are held to manumit them." 

The will further provides that all the slaves who at the time of 
their emancipation are unable by reason of old age, bodily infirmi- 
ties, or youth, to supjAort themselves shall be cared for out of his 
estate, the testator declaring: 

"I do moreover most pointedly and most solemnly enjoin it 
upon my executors hereafter named, or the survivors of them, to 
see that this clause respecting slaves and every part thereof be re- 
ligiously fulfilled at the epoch at which it is directed to take place 
without evasion, neglect, or delay, after the crops which may then 
be in the ground are harvested, particularly as it respects the aged 
and infirm : seeing that a regular and permanent fund be estab- 
lished for their support as long as there are subjects requiring it." — 
Virginia's AUiiude Toward Slavery and Secession, Mimford. p. 
lOS". lAfe of Washington, Irving, Vol. \ ., p. 439. 

Here are some of the sayings of Washington. They still float 
around as other local traditions, Like most tommy-rot, and old 
chestnuts, they are frequently told with great gusto. For a long 
time the popular conception of the man was based upon the story 
of his life as portrayed by Eev. C. L. Weems, 1838, whose book 
passed through some fifty editions. From him wei g'ot the myth about 
the cherry tree, and numerous others, equally without foundation. 
Weems claimed to have been the rector of Mount Vernon parish, 
and to have lived on terms of intimacy with Washington. Major- 
Oeneral Henry Lee. United States Army, on title page, commend* 
the book. But his pretensions Avere Avholly void of truth, as claimed 
by subsequent writers. Senator Lodge describes him as "a preacher 
by profession and an adventurer by nature." A writer of popular 
books, peddling them himself as he traveled about the country. 
Historians now hold him up as a man whose mendacity is now quite 
well understood, and the unreliability of his book thoroughly recog- 

We give these sayings simply to relieve the grotesque, dreary 
and sombre style and character of this booklet, and to light up and 
brighten these pages. Please spare us the mendacity and unre- 
liability of these sayings. 

The planting the flag upon the mountains of West Augusta has 
been and is a resourceful theme for oratory. The writer of this, 
lieard a distinguished Virginia orator, Hon. Caperton Braxton, at 
the great banquet hall of the Homestead. Hot Springs, Va., before 


the joint meeting of the American Bar Association and the Vir- 
jrinia Bar Association, use this flag incident and saying of Wash- 
ington, and it actually made the assemhly go wild. 

At the time Tarleton drove the Leg-islature from Charlottesville 
to Staunton, the stillness of the Sabbath eve was broken in the 
latter town by the beat of the drum and volunteers were called for 
to prevent the passage of the British through the mountains. Mr.~. 
Colonel William Lewis, with the firmness of a Eoman matron, gave 
lip to her country all her boys of tender years to keep back the foot 
of the invader from the soil of Augusta. When this incident was 
related to Washington shortly after its occurrence, he enthusias- 
tically exclaimed: "Leave me but a banner to plant upon the 
mountains of Augusta, and I w^ill rally around me the men who 
will raise our bleeding country from the dust and set her free." — 
Howe's History, page 183. 

Hon. Benson J. Lossing, author of "Life of Washington" and 
"Pictorial Field Book of the Eevolution," and other historians 
have given their version, but the better and most correct version 
(if to-day is taken from one of the addresses of Dr. Denny, presi- 
dent of Washinglon and Lee University: "Give me but a banner 
to plant upon the mountains of West Augusta, and I will rally 
about it the men who will lift our bleeding country from the dust, 
;>nd set her free." 

Another version is that in the darkest hour of the struggle for 
American Independence, the "Father of his Country," when the 
outlook for success staggered the hopes of the strongest patriot, 
said : "Give mo but a flag and the means to plant it upon the 
mountains of West Augusta, and I will draw about it an army 
which will never yield." 

^n tlie Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, by Joseph A. Wad- 
doll ( I'irginia Hisiorical Society, page 251), is stated: "We may 
•state that the rhetorical declaration about West Augusta, attributed 
to Washington at a dark day during the war, is a sheer fiction. 
What Washington said, in the simplest! terms, was. that if driven 
to extremity, he would retreat to Augusta county, in Virginia, and 
there make a stand." 

Whether this is a "rhetorical declaration." or "sheer fiction." 
we think there is a sentiment and charm about it that is apt to 
live, and we venture to say. will live in the ages. 

Below are some of the witticisms on Washington: 
Washington would not tell a lie. All have heard of Washing- 
ton and the little hatchet and the cherry tree from Parson Weems, 
which we will not repeat. 


At a banquet in Philadelphia, General Fitzhugh Lee, Governor 
of Virginia, is reported to have said : "It is a tradition in Fred- 
ericksburg that the mother of Washington once had her servant 
women in her back yard in Fredericksburg making soap. The 
women reported that the soap would not come, when, upon exami- 
nation she found that they were trying to make soap with the ashes 
of the cherry tree^ and there was no lye in it." 

When the Taft party visited the Philippines they went into a 
Japanese shop to make some purchases, and a Japanese merchant 
offered them the image of an idol, or some trinket which he said 
was five hundred years old. The American said: '"Why don't you 
make it one thousand." and the Jap replied, ''me have hearn of 
your George Washington, and me never tell a lie.'' 

A passenger on one of the Eapjpahannock steamers was pointing 
out to an Englishman the place where George Wasnington is said 
to have thrown a silver dollar across the river (Chatham, opposite 
Fredericksburg), and the Englishman .replied that a dollar went 
much further in those days than it does now. The Englishman 
still continued to doubt the proposition, when the American quickly 
replied, "Why, sii, that was easy for Washington to do, because he 
had thrown a crown across the Atlantic Ocean." This last is a 
tradition told of Oliver Wendell Holmes, who visited his son in the 
Union Army at Fredericksburg during the Civil War, now on 
United States Supreme Bench. 

"This was fine sport for George, Avhose passion for active exer- 
cise was so strong that at play time no weather could keep' him 
within doors. His fair cousins, who visited at his mother's, used 
to complain that 'George was not fond of their company like other 
boys : but soon as he had got his task would run out to play.' But 
such trifling play as marbles and tops he could never endure. They 
did not afford him exercise enough. His delight was in that of the 
manliest sort, which, by stringing the limbs and swelling the 
muscles, promotes the kindliest flow of blood and spirits. At jump- 
ing with a long pole, or heaving heavy weights, for his years, he 
hardly had an equal. And as to running, the swift-footed Achilles 
could scarcely have matched his speed. 

'"Egad! he ran wonderfully,' said my amiable and aged friend. 
John Fitzhugh. Esq., who knew him well. 'We had no boy herr- 
abouts that could come near him.' There was a young Langhorn 
Dade, of Westmoreland, a confounded clean made, tight young fel- 
low, and a mighty swift runner, too. But. then, he was no match 
for George. Langv, indeed, did not like to give up, and would 
brag that he had some times brought George to a tie. But I be- 


lieve he was mistaken, for I have seen them run together many a 
time, and George always beat him easy enough/' 

Colonel Lewis Willis, his playmate and kinsman, has been 
heard to say, that he has often seen him throw a stone across 
Rappahannock at the lower ferry of Fredericksburg. It would 
be no easy matter to find a man now-a-days who could do it. — 
Weems' Life of Washington, page 23. 

We do not think that the german was in vogue at that period — 
certainly none of the bijou and vaudeville pranks. It may be that 
the old Virginia reel and chum, chum-a-loo, and clapping-in and 
clapping-out, which date back, were extant then. We hear noth- 
ing from old John Fitzhugh and Parson Weems as to this, nor 
of Washington's accomplishments in this direction. But there is 
still floating around in Tidewater the tradition that when Wash- 
ington's "fair cousins" and the other girls in the neighborhood 
used to assemble, that Washington and this same long Langhorn 
Dade and the other boys had a championship for kissing the pret- 
tiest girl by jumping the farthest, and that Wasliington jumped 
twenty-two feet. Of course, he won the prize. 

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis 

Anti-Slavery Sentiment of Robert E. Lee. 

Owned No Slaves at Time of the Wai\ — Declares Disunion an 
Aggravation of the Ills of the South. — Denies Constitution- 
ality of Secession. — Denies Ethical Right of Coercion. — His 
Sorrow at Disunion. — Anti-Slavery Sentiments of Ricliard 
Henry Lee, James Monroe, James Madison, Robert Carter of 
Nomony, and Bushrod Washington. 

Eobert .E. Lee, writing in December, 1856, said : 

"In this enlightened age there are few, I believe, but will 
acknowledge that as an institution, slavery is a moral and political 
evil in any country. It is useless to expatiate on its disadvantages. 
I think, it, however, a greater evil to the white than to the black 
race, and while my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the 
latter, my sympathies are strongly for the former. 

'"While we see the icourse of the final abolition of slavery is 
onward, and we give it the aid of our prayers and all justiiiablc 
means in our power, we must leave the pirogress as well as the 
result in His hands, who sees the end and chooses to work by slow 
influences." — Virginia's Atiitvde Toward Slavery and Secession, 
Munford, p. 101 ; Life of R. E. Lee, Fitzhugh Lee, p. 64. 

Eobert E. Lee never owned a slave except the few he inherited 
from his mother — all of whom he emancipated many years prior 
to the war. — Virginia's Attitude Toward Slavery and Secession, 
Munford, p. 156. Letter from his eldest son. Gen. G. W. Ctistis Lee, 
to the author, dated February 4. 1907, on file in Virginia Historical 

Egbert E. Lee Declares Disunion an Aggravation of the 
Ills of the South. 

Eobert E. Lee, referring to the same subject, wrote : 
"The South, in my opinion, has been aggrieved by the acts of 
the North, as you say. I feci the aggression and am willin? to 
take every proper step for redress . . . But I can anticipate 
no greater calamity than a dissolution of the Union. It would be 
an accumulation of all the evils we complain of, and I am willing 
to sacrifice everything, but honor, for its preservation." — Idem, 
p. 227. Memoirs of Robert E. Lee by Long, p. 88. 


Robert E. Lee Denies Constitutionality of Secession, and 
Denies Ethical Right of Coercion. 

Robert E. Lee, writing on 23rd of January, 1861, said : 
"Secession is nothing l)ut revohition. The framers of oQr 
Constitution never exhausted so much labor, wisdom and forbear- 
anlce in its formation and surrounded it with so many guards and 
securities if it was intended t(^ Itc l)rokon l)y every menilier of tlie 
Confederacy at will. . . . • 

''Still a Union that can only be maintained by swords and 
bayonets, and in which strife and civil war are to take the phue 
of brotherly love and kindness, has no charm for me. If the Union 
is dissolved and the Government disrupted, I shall return to my 
native State and share the miseries of my people — and save in 
defense will draw my sword on none."" — Idem, p. 293. Memoirs 
of Robert E. Lee by Long, p. 88. 

His Sorrow at Disunion. 

Ro})ert E. Lee, anticipating the event, in January, 1861, wrote: 
"I shall mourn for my country and for the welfare and pro- 
gress of mankind. If the Union is dissolved and the Government 
disrupted, I shall return to my native State and share the miseries 
of my people, and, save in defense, will draw my sword on none.'" 
— Idem., p. 302. Memoirs of Robert E. Lee, Long, p. 88. 

Richard Henry Lee, speaking in the Virginia House of Bur- 
gesses, 1772, in support of a bill prohibiting the slave trade, said : 

"Nor, sir, are these the only reasons to be urged against the 
importation. In my opinion not the cruelties practised in the con- 
quest of South America, not the savage barbarity of a Saracen, 
can be more big with atrocity than our cruel trade to Africa. 
There wo encourage those poor, ignorant people to wage eternal 
war against each other; . . . that by war, stealth or sur- 
prise, we Christians may be furnished with our fellow creatures, 
who are no longer to be considered as created in the image of 
God as well as ourselves and equally entitled to liberty and free- 
dom by the great law of Nature, but they are to be deprived for- 
ever of all the comforts of life and to be made the most wretched 
of the human kind." — Virginia's Attitude Toward Slavery and 
Secession. ]\runford, p. 82. Lif/i of R. U. Lee, Lee, Vol. L, p. 18. 

James Monroe, speaking in the Virginia Constitutional Con- 
vention on the 2nd of Novemher, 1829, said : 

"What has been the leading spirit of this State ever since our 
independence was obtained? She has always declared herself in 


favor of the equal rights of man. The Revolution was conducted 
on that principle. Yet there was at that time a slavish population 
in Virginia. We hold it in the condition in which the Revolution 
found it, and what can he done with this population? . . . 
As to the practicahility of emancipating them, it can never hi' 
done by the State itself, nor without the aid of the Union. . . . 
''Sir, what brought us together in the Revolutionary War? It 
was the doctrine of equal rights. Each part of the country en- 
couraged and supported every other part. None took advantage 
of the other's distresses. And if we find that this evil has preyed 
upon the vitals of the Union and has been prejudicial to all the 
States where it existed, and is likewise repugnant to their several 
State Constitutions and Bills of Rights, why may we not expect 
that they will unite with us in accomplishing its removal." — Vir- 
gitiia's Attitude Toward Slavery and Secession, Munford. De- 
bates of Virginia Convention, 1829-'30, page 149. 

James Madison, in 1831, wrote concerning slavery and the 
American Colonization Society: 

''Many circumstances of the present moment seem to concur 
in brightening the prospects of the Society and cherishing the 
hope that the time will come when the dreadful calamity which 
has so long afflicted our country and filled so many with despair, 
will be gradually removed, and by means consistent with justice, 
peace and general satisfaction ; tFus giving to our country the full 
enjoyment of the blessings of liberty, and to the world the fuH 
benefit of its great example." — Idem,, p. 90. Life of James Madi- 
son, Hunt, p. 369. 

Extracts from deeds of Robert Carter, of Westmoreland 
county each dated the 1st day of January, 1793: 

"Whereas the General Assembly of the Commonwealtli of Vir- 
ginia did in the year seventeen hundred and eighty-two enact a 
law entitled, "An Act to Authorise the Manumission of Slaves,"' 
know all men by these presents that T, Robert Carter of Nomony 
Hall, in the county of Westmoreland, do under the said act for 
myself, my heirs, executors and administrators, emancipate, and 
forever setfree from slavery the following slaves." (Here follow 
the names of the slaves, twenty-seven in number.) — Idem,, p. 106. 
JJced and Will Boole, No. 18, p. 213, in the Clerk's Office, West- 
moreland county, Virginia. 

On the 1st of January. 1817, Mr. Justice Bush rod W^ishing- 
ton was made 'first President of the American Colonization So- 
eietv. — Virginia's Attitude Torvard Slavery and Secession, Mun- 
ford, p. 62. 

Beautiful Tributes to General Robert E. Lee. 
Sparkling Gems From Every Part of the World. 

Egbert E. Lee. 

The name of Eobert E. Lee symbolizes and embodies not only 
the military genius, but the best personal characteristics and 
private virtues of the men of the South. His was the culmina- 
tion of the South's growth and civilization, 

Georgia's gifted orator, Senator Benjamin H. Hill, has epitom- 
ized his virtues and greatness-. "He was a foe without hate, a 
friend without treachery, a soldier without cruelty, and a victim 
without murmuring. He was a public officer without vice, a 
private citizen without wrong, a neighbor without reproach, a 
Christian without hypocrisy, a man without guile. He was a 
Ca}sar without his ambition, Frederick without his tyranny, Napo- 
leon without his selfishness, and Washington without his reward. 
He was as obedient to authority as a servant, as regal in authority 
as a king. He was as gentle as a woman in life, pure and modest 
as a virgin in thought, watchful as a Eoman vestal, submissive to 
law as Socrates, and grand in battle as Achilles,'" 

The ablest military critic in the British army in this genera- 
tion has placed Lee and Stonewall Jackson in the same group 
M'ith Washington and Wellington and Marlborough, the five great- 
est generals, in his opinion of the English-speaking race. 

Lord Wolseley, speaking of him not only as the ''greatest 
soldier of his age," but also "the most perfect man I ever met," 
says in his personal memoirs: "A close student of war all my (his^ 
life, and especially of this Confederate War, and with a full 
knowledge of the battles fought during its progress," repeating 
his judgment that General Lee was "the greatest of all modern 
leaders," compares his campaign of 1863 with that of Napoleon's 
of 170n, Speaking of his visit to General Lee, he says: "I have 
taken no special trouble to remember all h(> said to me then (1862) 
and during subsequent conversations, and yet it is still fresh in 
my recollection. But it is natural that it should be so, for he was 
the ablest General, and to me seemed tbe greatest man I ever con- 
versed with ; and yet I have had the privilege of meeting Von 
Moltke and Prince Bismarck, and at least on one occasion had a 
very long and inten-(>ly interesting conversation with the latter. 



7 Cm/'I 

/ ( ' '. -- 


General Lee was one of the few men who ever seriously iiiij)rcssefl 
me, and awed me, with their natural and inherent greatness. Forty 
years have come and gone since our meeting, and yet the majesty 
of his manly bearing, the genial, winning grace, the sweetness of 
his smile, and the impressive dignity of his old fashioned style of 
address, 'Come back to me amongst the most cherished of my 
recollections. His greatness made me humble, and T never felt 
my own individual insignificance more keenly than I did in his 
presence. His was indeed a beautiful character, and of him it 
might truthfully be written : 'In righteousness he did judge and 
make war.' " 

Says Lord Wolseley again: "I desire to make known to the 
readers not only the renowned soldier, whom I believe to have 
been the greatest of his age, but to give some insight into the char- 
acter of one whom I have always considered the most perfect man 
I ever met." 

His judgment is that of such military writers and critics as 
Chesney, Lawler, and of the higher press, Northern as well as 

Colonel Lawler, an English soldier, said : 

"But, after all, the one name, which in connection with thn 
great American Civil War j)oxtcris narraUnii atqiie Iraddum super, 
stes erit, is the name of Robert Edward Lee." 

And Colonel Chesney, another English soldier : 

"The day will come . . . History will speak with a clear 
voice . . . and place above all others the name of the great 
chief of whom we have written (Lee). In strategy, mighty; in 
battle, terrible; in adversity and in prosperity, a hero indeed; 
with the simple devotion to duty and rare purity of the ideal 
Christian knight, he joined all the kingly qualities oF a leader of 

Von Moltke places General Lee above Wellington. 

Dr. Hunter McGuire, Jackson's staff, says : 

"Therefore, it is with swelling heart and deep thankfulness 
that I recently heard some of the first soldiers and military stu- 
dents of England declare, that within the past two hundred years 
the English-speaking race has produced but five soldiers of 'first 
rank — Marlborough. Wasliington, Wellington. Robert E. Lee, and 
Stonewall Jackson. . . . ^'ou will not be surprised to hear 
of my telling them tliat of tliese 'five, thus overtopping all the 
rest, three were born in the State of Yirjrinia; nor wonder that 
I reverently remember that two of them lie side by side in Lex- 


ington, while one is sleeping by the great river, there to sleep till 
time shall be no more — the three consecrating in 3eath the soil 
of Virginia, as in life they stamped their mother State as the 
native home of men who living a? they lived, shall be fit to go 
on quest for the Holy Grail." 

And two of these were born on the consecrated soil of West- 

Dr. Eandolph Harrison McKim, at the Reunion United Con- 
federate Veterans at Nashville, said : 

"Comrades, it is my conviction that the muse of History will 
write the names of some of our Southern heroes as high on her 
great Roll of Honor as those of any leaders of men in any era. 
Fame herself will rise from her throne to place the laurel with her 
own hands upon the immortal brows of Robert E. Lee and Albert 
Sidney Johnston and Stonewall Jackson. I grant, indeed, that 
it is not for us who were their companions and fellow soldiers to 
ask the world to accept our estimate of their rightful place in 
history. We are partial, we are biased in our judgments, men will 
say. Be it so. We are content to await the calm verdict of the 
future historian, when, with philosophic impartiality, the char- 
acters and achievements and motives of our illustrious leaders 
shall have been weighed in the balances of Truth. 

"What that verdict will be is foreshadowed, we believe, by the 
judgment expressed by General Lord Wolseley. who said, 'I be- 
lieve General Lee will be regarded not only as the most prominent 
figure of the Confederacy, but as the great American of the nine- 
teenth century, whose statue is well worthy to stand on an equal 
pedestal with that of Washington, and whose memory is equally 
worthy to be enshrined in the hearts of all his countrymen.' What 
that verdict will be was in fact declared by Freeman himself when 
he said that our Lee was worthy to stand with Washington beside 
Alfred the Great in the world's Temple of Fame." 

The late President of the United States, Mr. Roosevelt, has 
said in his Life of Thomas H. Benton: 

"The world has never seen better soldiers than those who fol- 
lowed Lee; and their leader will undoubtedly rank, as without 
any exception, the very greatest of all the great captains that the 
English-speaking peoples have brought fortli ; and this, although 
the last and chief of his antagonists may claim to stand as the 
full equal of Wellington and Marlborough." 

As to rank and file, General Hooker, of the Union army, has 
said that "for steadiness and efTiciencv," Lee's armv was unsur- 


passed in ancient or modern times, — "we have not been able to 
rival it."' And General Chas. A. Wliittier, of Massachusetts, has 
said, "The army of Northern Virginia will deservedly rank as the 
best army which has existed on this continent, suffering priva- 
tions unknown to ils opponent. The jSTorth sent no sucli arniv 
to the field." 

Colonel Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, President 
Historical Society of Massachusetts, at Lee Centennial, Washing- 
ion and Lee University, 1907, said: 

"Robert E. Lee was the embodiment of those conditions, the 
creature of that environment,— a A'irginian of Virginians. His 
father was 'Light Horse Harry' Lee, a devoted follower of Wash- 
ington; but in January, 1792, 'Light Horse Harry' wrote to Mr. 
Madison: 'No consideration on earth could induce me to act a 
part, however gratifying to me, which could be construed into dis- 
regard of, or faithlessness to, this commonwealth'; and later, when 
in 1798 the A^irginia and Kentucky resolutions were under dis- 
cussion, 'Light Horse Harry' exclaimed in debate, 'Virginia is my 
country; her will I obey, however lamentable the fate to which it 
may subject me.' Born in this environment, nurtured in these 
traditions, to ask Lee to raise his hand against Virginia was like 
asking Montrose, or the MacCallum More to head a force designed 
for the subjection of the Highland? and the destruction of the 

"Virginia had been drawn "into the struggle; and, though he 
recognized no necessity for the state of affairs, 'in my own per- 
son,' he wrote, 'I had to meet the question whether I should take 
part against my native State; I have not been able to make up my 
mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my 
home.' It may have been treason to take this position ; the man 
who took it, uttering these words and sacrificing as he sacrificed, 
may have been technically a renegade to his flag, if you please, 
false to his allegiance; but he stands awaiting sentence at the 
bar of history in very respectable company. Associated with him 
are, for instance. William of Orange, known as the Silent : John 
Hampden, the original Pater Patriae: Oliver Cromwell, the Pro- 
tector of the English Commonwealth ; Sir Harry Vane, once a 
Governor of Massachusetts, and George Washington, a Virginian 
of note. In the throng of other offenders I am also gratified to 
observe certain of those from whom I not unproudly claim de- 
scent. They were one and all, in the sense referred to. false to 
their oaths — forsworn. As to Robert E. Lee. individually, I can 
onlv repeat what I have already said, — if in nil respects similarly 

76 we8tmori-:land voiiyTY, Virginia 

circumstanced, I hope I should have been filial and unselfish 

enough to have done as Lee did. Such an utterance on my part 

may be 'traitorous,' but I here render that homage. 

"In Massachusetts, however, I could not even in 1861 have 

been so placed: for be it because of better or worse. Massacliusetts 

was not Virginia: — no more Virginia than England once was 

Scotland, or the Lowlands the Highlands. The environment, the 

ideals, were in no respect the same. In Virginia, Lee was Mac- 

gregor; and, where Macgregor sat, there was the head of the 



"That he impressed himself on those about him in bis profes- 
siona] and public life to an uncommon extent; that the soldiers 
of the Army of Northern Virginia as well as those of his staff and 
in high command felt not only implicit and unquestioning con- 
fidence in him, but to him a strong personal afifection, is estab- 
lished by their conlcurrent testimony. He, too, might well have 
said with Brutus : 

"My heart doth joy that yet in all my life 
I found no man but he was true to me 
I shall have glory by this losing day." 

"Finally, one who knew him well has written of him : 'He 
had the quiet bearing of a powerful yet harmonious nature. An 
unruffled cahn upon liis countenance betokened the concentration 
and control of the whole being within. He was a kingly man 
whom all men who came into his presence expected to obey.' That 
he was gifted in a prominent degree with the mens aequa in arduis 
of the Roman poet, none deny 

Anotber has said : 

"Let our thoughts now turn to our dead, and first in our afTec- 
tions should be President Davis. The Confederacy, looking for a 
man to lead it, chose him — why? Because he was the first amongst 
us. To us and to our 'cause he devoted his great ability. For us 
he lived, fought, and suffered, and dying, has bequeathed to us 
an example of pure patriotism, consistent statesmanship, forti- 
tude in suffering and absolute devotion to Truth and Duty. To 
us his memory is touchingly sacred and history will rank hiiu 
among the good and great of the earth. 

"Next comes Robert E. Lee. The glory and pathos of hi< life 
are like the sun as it rises and sets. The liistorian and writer 


have tried to describe him. and have found that he is beyond de- 

"After him anotlier: Stonewall Jackson, the genius of the 
war, the exemplar of all the principles of true religion in its 
highest development, unique in manner, pure in thought, word 
and deed, gentle of heart, but terrible in battle. 

"A hero came amongst us as we slept; 
At first he lowly knelt — then rose and wept; 

Then gathering up a thousand spears 
He swept across the field of Mars, 
Then bowed farewell, and walked beyond the stars — 

In the land where we were dreaming." 

Rev. E. C. De LaMoriniere, at Confederate Reunion, Mobile, 
Ala., 1910, said: 

"We offer our homage next to him whose story and memory are 
linked with all the hopes and triumphs, the exultation and despair 
which of those four bitter, bloody, torturing years made an endless 

"He was to us the incarnation of his cause, of what in it was 
noblest and knightliest, the Christian Chevalier whose white plume 
waves before us wherever we cast our eyes. No tongue, however 
gifted, can picture the lofty soul of the man who drew his sword, 
never in wrath, but for the principle ingrained in the core and 
fiber of his loyal nature, that his supreme allegiance was due to his 
mother State. He loved the flag he had borne with an ecstasy of 
devotion, and yet with absolute recognition of the hardships to be 
undergone, and the likelihood of defeat in the undertaking to be 
begun, with speechless grief for the evil days on which his country 
had fallen, he wended his way across the bridge of the land that 
gave him birth, looked with sadness on the beautiful home on the 
hanks of the river that had sheltered his young manhood, and came 
to Richmond to offer his sword to the new born Confederacy. 

"Upon the point of that sword he bore for four years the hopes 
of his people, baffling the chosen leaders of the enemy, beating 
back their hosts from" field to field and securing the safety of the 
Capital which sat shaking under their guns." 

"I speak of the man who, when the contest closed, and the 
curtains fell, was still the Christian knight, whose plume did not 
go down ; the peerless citizen from whose lips no word of murmur 
ever came, whose pen never wrote a line in self-defence ; who, when 
b.e had offered his sword to the conqueror too noble to accept it. 


called about him his war-worn veterans, his old guard, the com- 
panions of his toils, his feelings and his fame, delivered to them 
his 'final order, confided them to the keeping of his God and theirs, 
and turning from those fatal fields forever, went to the poverty 
and obscurity of the coming years, 'content if he might light with 
the splendid sunset of his heroic life the minds of Virginian boys 
and inspire their young hearts with the love of a reunited country. 
I speak of him who (in the words of Theodore Koosevelt) ranks 
the very greatest of all the great captains that the English speak- 
ing peoples have brought forth, the full equal of Marlborough and 
Wellington ; of him than whom Cicero in the Roman Forum plead- 
ing for virtue and patriotism, Plato in the Academic Groves teach- 
ing the young Athenians lessons of wisdom, hold no higher place. 

"I speak of him whose dying words were : 'Let the tent be 
struck : Forward !' and passed to the front above. I speak of him 
whose body rests among the hills of Virginia he loved so well, but 
whose grave is your hearts and mine, and whose fame is sounded 
louder and louder every year from the trumpet of the Avise and 
good throughout the wide world. 

"A country which has given birth to that man and those who 
followed him, may look the chivalry of Europe in the face without 
shame; for the fatherlands of Sidney and Bayard never produced 
a nobler soldier, gentleman, and Christian than Robert Edward 
Loe." ' ' 

The great scholar, George Long, Professor of Latin in the Uni- 
versity of London, and the first Professor of Ancient Languages in 
the T~^niversity of Virginia, has the following note in his '■Transla- 
tion of the Thoughts of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius 

''I have never dedicated a l)Ook to any man, and if I dedicated 
this. T sliould choose the man whose name seems to me to be most 
worthy to be joined to that of the Roman soldier and philosopher. 
I might dedicate this book to the successful general, who is now 
President of the Fnited States [Grant], with the hope that his in- 
tegrity and justice will restore peace and happiness, so far as he 
can, to those unhappy vStates that have suffered so much from war 
iind the unrelenting hostility of wicked men. But as the Roman 
poet said. Vlciri.r cmisa deis placiiit, sed victa Catoni; and it' I 
dedicated this little book to any man, I would dedicate it to him 
who led the Confederate armies against the powerful invader, and 
retired from an unequal contest defeated, ])ut not dishonored ; lo 
the noble Virginian soldier whose talents and virtues place him 
by the side of the best and wisest man who sat on the throne of fbe 
imperial Caesars." 


Philip Stanhope Worsley, a brilliant scholar of Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford, who died young, translated the Iliad into Spen- 
serian stanza, and sent a copy to General Eohert E. lice, with the 
following inscription : 

"To General E. E. Lee, the most stainless of living coin- 
iiianders, and, except in fortune, the greatest, this volume is pre- 
sented with the writer's earnest sympathy and respectful admir- 

— /had vi, /oj. 

1. '"The grand old bard that never dies, 

Receive him in our English tongue ! 
I senir thee, but with weeping eyes, 
The story that he sung. 

2. "Thy Truy is fallen, thy dear laud 

Is marred beneath the spoiler's heel, 
T cannot trust my trembling hand 
To write tlie things I feel. 

;>. ••All. realm of tombs! but let her bear 
'J'his blazon to the last of times; 
Xo nation rose so white and fair, 
Or fell so pure of crimes. 

4. '"'The widow's moan, the orphan's wail. 

C'Ome round thee; yet in truth be strong! 
Eternal right, though all else fail. 
Can never be made wrong. 

5. "An angel's heart, an angel's mouth, 

Not Homer's, could alone for me 
Hymn well the great Confederate South — 
Yircjinia first. — and Lee.'' 

Memoriae Sacrum. 
When the effigy of Washington 

In its bronze was reared on high 
'Twas mine, with others, now long gone, 

Beneath a stormy sky, 
To utter to the multitude 

His name that cannot die. 


And here to-day, my countrymen, 

I tell you Lee shall ride 
With that great "rebel" down the years — 

Twin "rebels'^ side by side — 
And confronting such a vision 

All our orief gives place to pride. 

These two shall ride immortal 

And shall ride abreast of time, 
Shall light up stately history 

And blaze in Epic Rhyme I 
P>oth patriots, both Virginians true, 

I^oth "rebels," both sublime. 

Oiii' pn<t is full of glory, 

Tt is a shut-in sea. 
Tile [lilhirs overlooking it 

Are Washington and Lee; — 
And a future spreads before us 

N"ot unworthy of the free. 

And here and now, my countrymen. 

Upon this sacred sod. 
Let us feel : It was "our Father" 

"Wlio above us held the rod. 
And from hills to sea. 
Like Eobert Lee 

Eow reverently to God. 

— Capt. James Barron Hope. 

Washington ^Monument at Wakefield, 
His Birth Place. 


Speeches That Have Made Two Virginians Famous. 
The Sword of Lee by Father Ryan. 

The Great Oration of Senator Daniel on General Lee at Washing- 
ton and Lee University — "The Stvord of Lee'' hy Father 
Ryan — Judge Critcher in United States Congress in Replay 
to Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, on Westmoreland's Illus- 
trious Men. 

Below we give an extract from the great oration of Senator 
John W. Daniel on General E. E. Lee at Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, June 28, 1883, at the unveiling of the recumbent figure. 

"Under Which Flag." 

"On the other hand stands the foremost and most powerful 
Republic of the earth, rich in all that handiwork can fashion or 
that gold can buy." * * * * 

"A messenger comes from its President and from General Scott, 
Commander-in-Chief of its Army, to tender him supreme command 
of its forces. Did he accept it, and did he succeed, the conqueror's 
crown awaits him, and win or lose, he will remain the foremost 
man of a great established nation, with all honor and glory that 
riches and office and power and public applause can supply. 

"Since the Son of Man stood upon the Mount, and saw 'all the 
kingdoms of the earth and the glory thereof stretched before Him, 
and turned away from them to the agony and bloody sweat of Geth- 
semane, and to the cross of Calvary beyond, no follower of the 
meek and lowly Saviour can have undergone more trying ordeal, 
or met it with higher spirit of heroic sacriifice. 

"There was naught on earth that could swerve Robert E. Lee 
from the path where, to his clear comprehension, honor and duty 
lay. To the statesman, Mr. Francis Preston Blair, who brought him 
the tender of supreme command, he answered : 'Mr. Blair, I look 
upon secession as anarchy. If I owned the four millions of slaves 
in the South, I would sacrifice them all to the Union. But how 
can I draw my sword against Virginia?' 

"Draw his sword against Virginia ? Perish the thought ! Over 
all the voices that called him he heard the still small voice that ever 
whispers to the soul of the spot that gave it birth, and of her who 
gave it suck; and over every ambitious dream there rose the face of 
the anffel that saiards the door of home.' 


"Lee Devotes His Sword to His ^Tative State." 

"General Lee thus answered : 
'"Mr. Pi'esident and Gentlemen of the Convention: 

"Profoundly inipressed with the solemnity of the occasion, for 
wliich I must say I was not prepared, I accept the position assigned 
me by your partiality. I would have preferred had your choice 
fallen upon an abler man. Trusting in Almighty God, an approv- 
ing conscience, and the aid of my fellow 'Citizens, I devote myself 
to the service of my native State, in whose behalf alone will I ever 
again draw my sword." 

"Thus came Eobert E. Lee to the State of his birth and to the 
people of his blood in their hour of need ! Thus, with as chaste a 
}ieart as ever plighted its faith until death, for better or for worse, 
iie came to do, to suffer, and to die for us, who to-day are gathered 
in awful reverence, and in sorrow unspeakable, to weep our bless- 
ings upon his tomb." 

"The Relations Between Lee and His Men." 

"When Jackson fell, Lee wrote to him : ' You are better off than 
1 am, for while you have lost your left arm, I have lost my right 
arm.' And Jackson said of him: 'Lee is a phenomenon. He is the 
only man I would follow blindfold.' " 

"Meditations of Duty." 

"And now when an English nobleman presented him as a re- 
treat a splendid country seat in England, with a handsome annuity 
to correspond, he answered: 'I am deeply grateful, but I cannot 
consent to desert my native State in tbe hour of her adversity. I 
must abide her fortunes and share her fate.' " 

The Fate of War. 

"When he crossed the Pennsylvania line, he liad announced in 
general orders, from the headquarters of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, that he did not come to 'take vengeance;' that 'we make 
war only upon armed men,' and he therefore 'earnestly exhorted the 
troops to abstain with most scrupulous care from unnecessary or 
wanton injury of private property,' and 'enjoined upon all officers 
to arrest and bring to summary punishment all who should in any 
way offend against the orders on the subject.' No charred ruins, 
no devastated fields, no plundered homes marked the line of his 


march. On one occasion, to set a good example, he was seen to 
dismount from his horse and put up a farmer's fence. In the city 
of York, General Early had in general orders prohibited the burn- 
ing of buildings containing stores of war, lest fire might be com- 
municated to neighboring homes; and General Gordon, in his public 
address, had declared : 'If a torch is applied to a single dwelling, 
or an insult offered to a female of your town by a soldier of this 
command, point me out the man, and you shall have his life." 

"President of Washington College." 

"On the eve of acceptance, two propositions were made to Gen- 
eral Lee : one to become president of a large corporation, with a 
salary of $10,000 per annum; another to take the like office in an- 
other corporation, with a salary of $50,000. But he made up his 
mind to come here, and this is what he said to a friend who brought 
him the last munificent offer : 

" 'I have a self-imposed task which I must accomplish. I have 
lead the young men of the South in battle; I have seen many of 
them fall under my standard. I shall devote my life now to train- 
ing young men to do their duty in life.' " 

"The Last Days of General Lee." 

"He was borne to his chamber, and skilled physicians and lov- 
ing hands did all that man could do for nearly a fortnight. 

" 'Twixt night and morn upon the horizon verge. 
Between two worlds life hovered like a star.' 

And thus on the morning of October 12th, the star of the morning 
sank into the sunrise of immortality, and Eobert Lee passed hence 
to 'where beyond these voices there is peace.' 

" 'Tell A. P. Hill to prepare for action,' was amongst the last 
words of Stonewall Jackson. 'Tell Hill he must come up,' were the 
last words of Lee. Their brave Lieutenant, who rests under the 
green turf of Hollywood, seems to have been latest in the minds 
of his great commanders, while their spirits yet in martial fancy, 
roamed again the 'fields of confiict, and ere they passed to where the 
soldier dreams of battlefields no more." 

" Did He Save His Country from Conquest." 

"No. He saw his every forebodin-g of evil verified. He came to 
t^^hare the miseries of his people. He shared them, drinking every 
drop of sorrow's cup. His cause was lost, and the land for which he 
fought lives not amongst the nations. But the voice of history 
echoes the poet's song : 


" *Ah ! realm of tombs ! but let it bear 
This blazon to the last of times; 
No nation rose so white and fair, 
Or fell so pure from crimes.' 

And he, its type, lived and died, teaching life's greatest lesson, 'to 
suffer and be strong,' and that "misfortune nobly borne is good for- 
tune.' " 

There is a rare exotic that blooms but once in a century, and 
then it fills the light with beauty and the air with fragrance. In 
each of the two centuries of Virginia's Statehood, there has sprung 
from the loins of her heroic race a son whose name and deeds will 
bloom throughout the ages. Each fought for Liberty and Inde- 
pendence; each against a people of his own race; each against the 
forms of established power. George Washington won against a 
kingdom whose seat was three thousand miles away, whose soldiers 
had to sail in ships across the deep, and he found in the boundless 
areas of his own land its strongest fortifications. August, beyond 
the reach of detraction, is the glory of his name. Eobert Edward 
Lee made fiercer and bloodier fight against greater odds, and at 
greater sacrifice, and lo^t — against the greatest nation of modern 
history, armed with steam and electricity, and all the appliances 
of modern science ; a nation which mustered its hosts at the very 
threshold of his door. But his life teaches the grandest lesson 
how manhood can rise transcendent over Adversity, and is in itself 
alone, under God, pre-eminent — the .grander lesson, because as 
sorrow and misfortune are sooner or later the common lot — even 
that of him who is to-day the conqueror — he who bears them best 
is made of sterner stuff, and is the most useful and universal, 
and he is the greatest and noblest exemplar. 

And now he has vanished from us forever. And is this all 
that is left of him — this handful of dust beneath the marble stone? 
No, the Ages answer as they rise from the gulfs of time, where 
lay the wrecks of kingdoms and estates, holding up in their hands 
as their only trophies, the names of those who have wrought for 
man in the love and fear of God, and in love unfearing for their 

No ! the present answers, bending by his tomb. 

No ! the future answers, as the breath of the morning fans its 
rndiant brow, and its soul drinks in sweet inspirations from the 
lovely life of Lee. 

No, methinks the very heavens echo, as melt into their depths 
the words of reverent love that voice the hearts of men to the 
tingling stars. 



Come we then to-day in loyal love to sanctify our memories, to 
purify our hopes, to make strong all good intent by communion 
with spirit of him who, being dead, yet speaketh. Come, child, 
in thy spotless innocence; come, woman, in thy purity; come, 
youth, in thy prime; come, manhood, in thy strength; come, age, 
in thy ripe wisdom; €ome citizen, come soldier, let us strew the 
roses and lilies of June around liis tomb, for he, like them, ex- 
haled in his life Nature's beneficence, and the grave has conse- 
crated that life, and given it to us all ; let us crown his tomb with 
the oak, the emblem of his strength, and with the laurel, the 
emblem of his glory, and let these guns, whose voices he knew of 
old, awake the echoes of the mountains that Nature herself may 
join in his solemn requiem. 

Come, for here he rests, and — 

"On this green bank, by this fair stream. 
We set to-day a native stone, 
That memory may his deeds redeem. 

When, like our sires, our sons are gone." 

Come, for here the genius of loftiest poesy in the artist's dream, 
and through the sculptor's touch, has restored his form and 
features — a Valentine has lifted "the marble veil and disclosed him 
to us as we would love to look upon him — lying, the flower of 
knighthood in "Joyous Card." His sword beside him is sheathed 
forever. But honors seal is on his brow, and valor's star is on his 
breast, and the peace that passeth all understanding descends upon 
him. Here, not in the hour of his ,2rrandest triumph of earth, as 
when mid the battle roar, shouting battalions followed his trenchant 
sword, and bleeding veterans forgot their wounds to leap between 
him and his enemies — but here in victory, supreme over earth it- 
self, and over death, its conqueror, he rests, his warfare done. 

And as we seem to gaze once more on him we loved and hailed 
as chief, in his sweet, dreamless sleep, the tranquil face is clothed 
with heaven's light, and the mute lips seem eloquent with the 
message that in life he spoke : 

"There is a true glory and a true honor; the glory op 
duty done, the honor of the integrity of principle." 


After the conclusion of Major Daniel's oration, Father Ryan, 
at the request of General Early, recited his celebrated poem 

The Sword of Lee. 

Forth from its scabbard, pure and bright, 

Flashed the sword of Lee ! 
Far in the front of the deadly fight, 
High o'er the brave in the cause of right, 
Its stainless sheen, like a beacon-light, 

Led us to victory. 

Out of its scabbard, where full long. 

It slumbered peacefully — 
Roused from its rest by the battle-song. 
Shielding the feeble, smiting the strong. 
Guarding the right, and avenging the wrong — 

Gleamed the sword of Lee ! 

Forth from its scabbard, high in air, 

Beneath Virginia's sky — 
And they who saw it gleaming there, 
And knew who bore it, knelt to swear 
That where that sword led they would dare 

To follow and to die.. 

Out of its scabbard ! Never hand 

Waved sword from stain as free, 
Nor purer sword led braver band, 
Nor braver bled for a brighter land. 
Nor brighter land had a cause as grand. 

Nor cause, a chief like Lee ! 

Forth from its scabbard ! how we prayed 

That sword might victor be ! 
And when our triumph was delayed, 
And many a heart grew sore afraid. 
We still hoped on, while gleamed the blade 

Of noble Robert Lee ! 

Forth from its scabbard ! all in vain ! 

Forth flashed the sword of Lee! 
It sleeps the sleep of our noble slain. 
Defeated, yet without a stain. 

Proudly and peacefully. 
"Tis shrouded now in its sheath again, 


From the Rappahannock Times, April 17, 189G. 

Portrait Unveiling. 

There will be an unveiling of portraits of distinguished men 
in the courthouse at Tappahannock, on next ^londay, County Court 
day, at 1 :30 P. M. All of the people are cordially invited, and 
the ladies will be honored with reserved seats, and are expected to 

The portraits will be unveiled by little Misses, who will be 
selected, and the ceremony will draw all the best talent of the Bar, 
and of the other leaders of thought in this section. The portraits 
already here, are as follows : One of James Eoy Micou, the noble 
type of Virginia's history and civilization, and Clerk for fifty-seven 
years ; presented by Prof. James Roy Micou, of Washington College, 
Chestertown, Md. Judge Blakey, the brilliant Commonwealth's 
Attorney, and ex-Member House of Delegates Harrison South- 
worth, the present efficient Clerk, and nowhere excelled. Thomas 
Ritchie, known as "Father Ritchie," the great Napoleon of the 
Press; presented by his honored kinsmen of Essex. 

California has sent her golden nugget in a splendid oil, life- 
sized painting of Judge Selden S. Wright, who adorned the Bench 
in Mississippi and San Francisco; presented by his widow of said 

John Critcher, Member of Congress and Circuit Judge. The 
splendid life-sized oil painting, presented by Judge Critcher's 
youngest daughter. Miss Critcher is an artist of the first magni- 
tude. She Avas awarded two medals at the Cooper Institute, New 
York, and the gold medal at the Corcoran Art School, Washington. 
D. C, and has recently received the compliment of a round-trip 
ticket to Europe during the summer on the Cunard line of steamers. 

We clip from the Alexadria Gazette, of March 17, 1896, the 
following letter just received by Miss Catharine Critcher: 

"225 Delaware Ave., Washington^ D. C. 

"■Dear Miss Critcher: 

"I take pleasure in notifying you that at the meeting on Marcli 
10th, you were unanimously elected a member of the Society of 
Washington Artists. 

"Very truly yours, 

W. B. CtTtlton. Secretary." 


wi:stmori:l\M) roT a'//. i //,v;/.y/a 

]\riss Critehcr, of Alexandria, Miss Tliompson and Miss Terrie, 
of Washington, are the only ladies who have ever been elected 
members of this society. 

Beside the honor to be done him as a distingnished Jndge, the 
following incident fires the heart of every Virginian and Southern 
man, and thrills us with admiration and pride. When a member 
of the Forty-second Congress, he uttered the following words, that 
made him famous. 

An aj^propriation, in proportion to illiteracy, being the subject 
under consideration, Mr. Ploar, from Massachusetts in the course 
of his remarks said : ''The iniluence of slavery was not so observ- 
able in the degradation of the slave as in the depravity of the 

Mr. Critcher, from Virginia, in reply, begged leave to illustrate 
the depravity of the master by reminding the House that every 
e^igner of the Declaration of Independence was a slave holder, ex- 
cept those from Massachussetts, and perhaps one or two others. 
It might be deemed extravagant, but he would venture a bold 
assertion. He would venture to say, that he could name more 
eminent men from the Parish of his residence than the gentleman 
could name from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He would 
proceed to name them, and then yield the floor, that the gentleman 
might match them, if he could. 

On one side of his estate is Wakefield, the birthplace of Wash- 
ington. On the other side is Stratford, the residence of Light 
Horse Harry Lee, of glorious revolutionary memory. xAdjoining 
Stratford is Chantilly, the residence of Richard Henry Lee, the 
mover of the Declaration of Independence, and the Cicero of the 
American Revolution. There, too, lived Francis Lightfoot Lee, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence; Charles Lee, at one 
time Attorney-General, and Arthur Lee, one of the accomplished 
negotiators of the treaty of commerce and alliance between these 
Colonies and France in 1777. Returning you come, as said Iiefore, 
first to the birthplace of W^asliiiii'ton. Another hour's drive will 
bring you to the birthplace of Monroe. Another hour's drive to 
the birthplace of Madison. And. if the gentleman supposes that 
the present generation is unworthy of their illustrious ancestors, 
he lias but to stand on the same estate to see the massive chimneys 
of the baronial mansion that witnessed the birth of Robert F. Lee. 


These are some of the eminent men from the Parish of his resi- 
dence, and he now yielded the floor to the gentleman to match them 
if he could from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

At the time of this incident there was the most intense feeling 
between the sections, and the remarks were copied from the Sus- 
quehannah to the Gulf. The ichallenge somewhat startled the 
House. James G. Blaine was in the Speaker's chair, and he leaned 
over his desk to hear every word. Hon. Dan Voorliees was sitting 
by Judge Critcher, and told him afterwards that when lie made 
the assertion, sweat came out upon his forehead, fearing that he 
would name some local celebrities and be covered with confusion 
by so dexterous a debater as Hoar. He said, too, it was the only 
speech he ever heard and afterwards i^ead, for he could not believe 
his own ears. 

Mr. Hoar's reply was too indelicate for publication, but Judge 
Critcher instantly stopped him, saying, "I yielded the floor that 
you might name the eminent men of your Commonwealth, not to 
give you an opportunity to indulge in the more congenial task of 
defaming other people." 

[Extract from speech of Hon. John Critcher, Forty-second Con- 
gress United States, in debate with Mr. Hoar (afterwards Senator), 
of Massachusetts (see Congressional Globe, pp. 800, 801:] 

From the decks of the steamer as we sail up the beautiful Yeo- 
eomico River to Kinsale, on the left on an elevated plateau or hill, 
we see a picturesque grove where Midshipman Sigourney was buried. 
From this point the view of the landscape and the expanse of the 
v/aters as they flow towards the Potomac are exquisite. 

"I send herewith the superscription on the slab over the grave of 

After the enemy had left, his body was prepared for ])urial and 
interred in the Bailey family burying ground by the ancestors of 
the family now occupying the premises, entirely at their expense. 

When I first saw this spot of ground the grave with the slab 
was entirely covered with briers and undergrowth. Since then 
these have been removed, and at this time the visitor beholds a 
spot kept in loving remembrance. This transformation was wrought 
by Miss Fannie Bailey, who still keeps careful watch over one of 
this nation's heroes, forgotten by all but her. 

Yours sincerely. 

S. B. Hardwick. 


Sacred to the ^Iemory 



OF THE United States Navy, 

a Native of Boston, Mass., 

Aged 23 Years; 

Who fell in gallantly defending his Country's Flag 

on board of the United States Schooner Asp, 

under his command in an action with five 

British barges of very superior force, 

on the 14th day of July, 1813. 

Go gallant youth, obey the call of heaven, 
Your sins were few, we trust they are forgiven; 
But then, oh what can paint the parent's woe, 
Your Country will punish the hand that gave the blow. 

We now insert notices drawn from various public sources, of 
some of the other distinguished men of Westmoreland : 

Richard Henry Lee, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
was born at Stratford, January 20, 1732. He spent several years 
in an academy in England, from which he returned to his native 
country in his nineteenth year. His fortune being ample, he de- 
voted his time principally to the elegant pursuits of literature. In 
1755 he offered his services as a captain of provincials to Brad- 
dock; but he refused to accept any more assistance from the pro- 
vincials than he was obliged to. In his twenty-fifth year, Lee was 
appointed a justice of the peace, and was shortly after first chosen a 
delegate to the House of Burgesses, Avhere he soon acquired distinc- 
tion in debate, and his voice was always raised in support of repub- 
lican principles. In all the questions of controversy that came up 
between the mother country and her colonies, Mr. Lee took an active 
part. He was appointed on the most important committees of the 
House of Burgesses, and drew up some of the most important 
papers, which '^contained the genuine principles of the revolution, 
and abounded in the firm and eloquent sentiments of freemen." 

It is stated tbat the celebrated plan of corresponding committees 


between the different colonies, adopted in 1773 by the House of 
Burgesses, originated with Mr. Lee. The same idea had, about the 
same time, been conceived by Mr. Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, 
which circumstance has occasioned much dispute. Mr. Lee doubt- 
less followed the suggestions of his own mind, as he had, five years 
previously, requested ^Ir. Dickinson of Pennsylvania, in a letter, to 
bestow his consideration upon the advantage of plans which he 
communicated to him of the same purport. 

Wirt, in describing him at this time, says: "Eichard Henry Lee 
was the Cicero of the house. His face itself was on the Roman 
model; his nose Cesarean; the port and carriage of his head, lean- 
ing persuasively and gracefully forward; and the whole contour 
noble and fine. Mr. Lee was by far the most elegant scholar in the 
house. He had studied the classics in the true spirit of criticism. 
His taste had that delicate touch which seized with intuitive cer- 
tainty every beauty of an author, and his genius that native affinity 
which combined them without an effort. Into every walk of litera- 
ture and science he had carried this mind of exquisite selection, and 
brought it back to the business of life, crowned with every light of 
learning, and decked with every wreath that all the Muses and all 
the Graces could entwine. Xor did those light decorations consti- 
tute the whole value of his freight. He possessed a rich store of his- 
torical and political knowledge, with an activity of observation, and 
a certainty of judgment that turned that knowledge to the very 
best account. He was not a lawyer by profession, but he under- 
stood thoroughly the constitution both of the mother country and 
of her colonies, and the elements also, of the civil and municipal 
law. Thus, while his eloquence was free from those stiff and tech- 
nical restraints which the habits of forensic speaking are so apt to 
generate, he had all the legal learning which is necessary to a states- 
man. He reasoned well, and declaimed freely and splendidly. The 
note of his voice was deeper and more melodious than that of Mr. 
Pendleton. It was the canorous voice of Cicero. He had lost the 
use of one of his hands, which he kept constantly covered with a 
black silk bandage neatly fitted to the palm of his hand, but leaving 
liis thumb free ; yet, notwithstanding this disadvantage, his gestur 
was so graceful and so highly finished, that it was said he had ac- 
quired it by practising before a mirror. Such was his promptitude 
that he required no preparation for debate. He was ready for any 
subject as soon as it was announced ; and his speech was so copious, 
so rich, so mellifluous, set off with such bewitching cadence of voice, 
and such captivating grace of action, that while you listened to him 
you desired to hear nothing superior, and indeed thought him per- 


feet. He had a quick sensibility and a fervid imagination, which 
Mr. Pendleton wanted. Hence his orations were warmer and mora 
delightfully interesting; yet still, to him those keys were not con- 
signed, which could unlock the sources either of the strong or ten- 
der passions. His defect was. that he was too smooth and too sweet. 
His style bore a striking resemblance to that of Herodotus, as de- 
scribed by the Eoman orator: 'he flowed on. like a quiet and placid 
liver, without a ripple.' He flowed, too, through banks covered 
with all the fresh verdue and variegated bloom of the spring; but 
hi? course was too subdued, and too beautifully regular. A cata- 
ract, like that of Niagara, crowned with overhanging rocks and 
mountains, in all the rude and awful grandeur of nature, would 
have brought him nearer to the standard of Homer and of Henry." 

In 1774, he was a member of the first general Congress, wliere 
he at once took a prominent stand, and was on all the leading com- 
mittees. From his pen proceeded the memorial of Congress to the 
pcoj)ic of British America. In the succeeding Congress, Washing- 
ton was appointed commander-in-chief of the army, and his com- 
mission and instructions were furnished by Mr. Lee, as chairman of 
the committee appointed for that purpose. The second address of 
Congress to the people of Great Britain — a composition unsur- 
passed by any of the state papers of that time — was written by him 
this session. But the most important of his services in this term 
was his motion, June 7, 1776, to declare independence. His speech 
on introducing this bold and glorious measure was, one of the most 
brilliant displays of eloquence ever heard on the floor. After a 
protracted debate, it was determined. June 10th, to postpone the 
consideration of this resolution until the first Monday of the July 
following; but a committee was appointed to prepare a declaration 
of independence. Of this committee he would have been chairman, 
according to parliamentary rules, had not the illness of some of his 
family called him home. Mr. Jefferson was substituted for him, 
and drew up the declaration. He shortly resumed his seat, in which 
he continued until June, 1777, when he solicited leave of absence 
on account of ill liealth, and to clear up some stains which malice 
or overheated zeal had thrown upon his reputation in Virginia. He 
demanded an investigation from the Assembly, which resulted in 
a most triumpRant and flattering acquittal, by a vote of thanks for 
his patriotic services. 

In consequence of Mr. Lee's great and persevering exertions to 
procure the independence of his country, and to promote the cause 
of liberty, the enemy made great exertions to secure his person. 
Twice he narrowly escaped being taken. Once his preservation was 


owing to the fidelity of his slaves, and on the other occasion his 
safety was owing to his own dexterity and presence of mind. 

In August, 1778, he was again elected to Congress, but declining 
health forced him to withdraw, in a great degree, from the arduous 
labors to which he had hitherto devoted himself. In 1780 he re- 
tired from his seat, and declined returning to it until 1784. In 
the interval he served in the Assembly of Virginia, and, at the head 
of the militia of his county, protected it from the incursions of the 
enemy. In 1784, he was unanimously chosen president of Congress, 
but retired at the end of the year, and in 1786 was again a member 
of the Virginia Assembly. He was a member of the convention 
which adopted the federal constitution, and although personally 
hostile to it, he joined in the vote to submit it to the people. He 
was subsequently, with Mr. Grayson, chosen the first senators from 
Virginia under it, and in that capacity moved and carried through 
several amendments. In 1793, he was forced by ill health to retire 
from public life, when he was again honored by a vote of public 
thanks from the legislature of Virginia. He died June 19, 1794. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee, a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, was born October 10, 1734. His education was directed by 
a private tutor, and he inherited a fortune. In 1765 he became a 
member of the House of Burgesses, and continued in that body 
until 1775, when the convention of Virginia chose him a member 
of the Continental Congress, in which he remained until 1779, when 
he entered the legislature of Virginia. He died in Eichmond in 

Henry Lee, a Governor of Virginia and a distinguished officer 
of the Revolution, was born January 29, 1756. His family was 
one of high respectability and distinction. At eighteen years of age 
he graduated at Princeton College. In 1776, when but twenty years 
of age, he was appointed captain of one of the six companies of 
cavalry composing the regiment of Colonel Theodoriek Bland. In 
September, 1777, Captain Lee, with his company, joined the main 
army. He introduced excellent discipline into his corps, and ren- 
dered most effectual .service, in attacking light parties of the enemy, 
in procuring information, and in foraging. 

As Captain Lee, in general, lay near the British lines, a plan 
was formed in the latter part of January, 1778, to cut off both him 
and his troop. A body of two hundred cavalry made an extensive 


circuit, and seizing four of his patrols, came unexpectedly upon him 
in his quarters, a stone house. He had then with him only ten men ; 
yet with these he made so desperate a defence, that the enemy were 
beaten off with a loss of four killed, and an officer and three privates 
wounded. His heroism in this affair drew forth from Washington 
a complimentary letter, and he was soon after raised to the rank 
of a major, with the command of an independent partisan corps of 
two companies of horse, which afterwards was enlarged to three, 
and a body or infantry. On the 19th of July, 1779, Major Lee, at 
the head of about three hundred men, completely surprised the 
British garrison at Powles' Hook — now Jersey City — and after 
taking one hundred and sixty prisoners, retreated with the loss of 
but two men killed, and three wounded. For his "prudence, ad- 
dress, and bravery," in this affair. Congress voted him a gold medal. 
In the commencement of the year 1780, he joined, with his 
legion, the army of the south, having been previously promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In the celebrated retreat of Greene 
before Cornwallis, Lee's legion formed the rear guard of the army. 
So hot w^as the pursuit, that Colonel Lee at one time came in con- 
tact with Tarleton's corps, and, in a successful charge, killed eigh- 
teen of them, and made a captain and several privates prisoners. 
Shortly after, Lee with his legion, and Colonel Pickens with some 
militia, attacked a party of four hundred loyalist militia under 
Colonel Pyle, killed ninety, and wounded many others. At the bat- 
tle of Guilford, Lee's legion distinguished itself; previous to the 
action, it drove back Tarleton's dragoons with loss, and afterwards 
maintained a sharp and separate conflict until the retreat of the 
main army. After this, Greene, in pursuance of the advice of Lee, 
determined to advance at once into South Carolina, and endeavor 
to reannex to the Union that and its sister state of Georgia, instead 
of watching the motions of Cornwallis. The results were as for- 
tunate as the design was bold and judicious. In pursuance of this 
plan, Greene advanced southward, having previously detached Lee, 
with the legion, to join the militia under Marion, and, in co-opera- 
tion with him, to attempt the minor posts of the enemy. By a 
series of bold and vigorous operations, Forts Watson, Motte. and 
Granby, speedily surrendered; after which, the legion was ordered 
to join General Pickens, and attempt to gain possession of Augusta. 
On the way, Lee surprised and took fort Galphin. The defences 
of Augusta consisted in two forts — Fort Cornwallis and Fort Grier- 
son; the latter was taken by assault, the former after a siege of six- 
teen days. In the unfortunate assault upon Ninety-Six, Lee was 
completely successful in the part of the attack intrusted to his care. 


In the battle of Eutaw Springs, his exertions contributed much to 
the successful issue of the day. After the surrender of Yorktown, 
Lee retired from the army, carrying with him, however, the esteem 
and affection of Greene, and the acknowledgment that his services 
had been greater than those of any one man attached to the southern 

Soon after his return to Virginia, he married a daughter of 
Philip Ludwell Lee, and settled at Stratford in this county. In 
1786, he was a delegate to Congress; in 1788, a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention to ratify the constitution, in defence of which he 
greatly distinguished himself. From 1793 to 1795, he was Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. On the breaking out of the ^Vhiskey Insurrec- 
tion, in 1755, he was appointed by Washington to the command of 
the forces ordered against the insurgents, and received great credit 
for his conduct. In 1799 he was again a delegate in Congress, and 
upon the death of Washington, he was appointed to pronounce his 
eulogium. It was upon this occasion he originated the celebrated 
sentence : '"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of 
his countrymen." On the election of Jefferson he retired to private 

His last years were clouded by pecuniary troubles. The hos- 
pitable and profuse style of living so common in Virginia, ruined 
his estate, and even abridged his personal liberty. It was in 1809, 
while confined for debt, that he composed his elegantly written 
Memoirs of the Southern Campaign. 

General Lee was in Baltimore in 1812, at tbe time of the riot 
occasioned by the publication of some strictures on the war in the 
Federal Bepublican, an anti-war paper. After the destruction of 
the printing office, an attack on the dwelling of the editor was ap- 
prehended. Lee, from motives of personal friendship to the editor, 
with a number of others, assembled for the purpose of protecting 
it. On being attacked, two of the assailants were killed, and a 
number wounded. The military arriving soon after, effected a 
compromise with the mob, and conveyed the inmates of the house 
to the city jail for their greater safety. In the night the mob 
reassembled in greater force, broke open the jail, killed, and man- 
gled its inmates in a shocking manner. From injuries then re- 
ceived, Lee never recovered. He went to the West Indies for his 
health. His hopes proved futile. He returned in 1818 to Georgia, 
where he died. 

General Lee was about five feet nine inches, well-proportioned, 
of an open, pleasant countenance, and a dark complexion. His 
manners were frank and engaging; his disposition generous and 


hospitable. By his first wife, he had a son and a daughter; by his 
second (a daughter of Charles Carter, of Shirley), he had three 
sons and two daughters. 

Arthur Lee, M. D., minister of the United States to the court 
of Versailles, was a native of Virginia, and the brother of Eichard 
Henry Lee. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, 
Vv'here he also pursued for some time the study of medicine. On his 
return to this country, he practised physic four or five years in Wil- 
liamsburg. He then went to London, and commenced the study of 
the law in the Temple. During his residence in England he kept 
Ins eye on the measures of government, and rendered the most im- 
portant services to his country, by sending to America the earliest 
intelligence of the plans of the ministry. When the instructions 
to Governor Bernard were sent over, he at the same time communi- 
cated information to the town of Boston respecting the nature of 
them. He returned, it is believed, before 1769, for in that year he 
published the Monitor's Letters, in vindication of the colonial 
rights. In 1775 he was in London, as the agent of Virginia; and 
ho presented, in August, the second petition of Congress to the 
king. All his exertions were now directed to the good of Jiis coun- 
try. When Mr. Jeiferson declined the appointment of a minister 
to France, Dr. Lee was appointed to his place, and he joined his 
colleagues. Dr. Franklin and Mr. Deane, at Paris, in December, 
1776. He assisted in negotiating the treaty with France. In the 
year 1779, he and Mr. Adams, who had taken the place of Deane, 
were recalled, and Dr. Franklin was appointed sole minister to 
France. His return had been rendered necessary by the malicious 
accusations with which Deane had assailed his public conduct. 

In the preceding year Deane had left Paris, agreeably to an 
order of Congress, and came to this country in the same ship with 
the French minister Gerard. On his arrival, as many suspicions 
hovered around him, he thought it necessary to repel them by at- 
tacking the character of his colleague. Dr. Lee. In an inflammatory 
address to the public he vilified him in the grossest terms, charg- 
ing liim with obstructing the alliance with France, and disclosing 
the secrets of Congress to British noblemen. He at the same time 
impeached the conduct of his brother, William Lee. Esq., agent for 
Congress at the courts of Vienna and Berlin. Dr. Lee, also, was 
not on very good terms with Dr. Franklin, whom he believed to be 
too much under the influence of the French court. Firm in his 
attachment to the interest of his country, honest, zealous, he was 
inclined to question the correctness of all the commercial transac- 


tions ill which tlie philosopher had heen engaged. These dissensions 
among the ministers produced corj'csponding divisions in Congress; 
and Monsienr Gerard had so little respect for the dignity of an 
ambassador, as to become a zealons partisan of Deane. Dr. Lee had 
many friends in Congress, bnt Dr. Franklin more. When the former 
returned to America in the year 1780, such was his integrity, that 
he did not find it difficult to reinstate himself fully in the good 
opinion of the public. In 1784 he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners for holding a treaty with the Indians of the Six Nations. 
He accordingly went to Fort Schuyler, and executed this trust in a 
manner which did him much honor. In February, 1790, he was 
admitted a counsellor of the supreme court of the United States, 
by a special order. After a short illness, he died, December 14, 
1792, at Urbanna, in Middlesex county, Virginia. He was a man 
of uniform patriotism, of a sound understanding, of great probity, 
of plain manners, and strong passions. 

During his residence for a number of years in England, he was 
indefatigable in his exertions to promote the interests of his coun- 
try. To the abilities of a satesman he united the acquisitions of a 
scholar. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society. 
Besides the Monitors Letters, written in the year 1769, which 
have been mentioned, he published "Extracts from a Letter to Con- 
gress, in answer to a Libel by Silas Deane," 1780; and "Ob- 
servations on Certain Commercial Transactions in France," laid 
before Congress 1780. 

Bushrod Washington was born in this county, and educated at 
William and Mary. He studied law in Philadelphia, and com- 
menced its practice with great success in this county. He was a 
member of the House of Delegates in 1781. He afterwards re- 
moved to Alexandria, and thence to Eichmond, where he published 
two volumes of the decisions of the supreme court of Virginia. He 
was appointed, in 1798, an associate-justice of the supreme court 
of the United States, and continued to hold this situation until his 
death, in November, 1829. He was the favorite nephew of General 
Washington, and was the devisee of Mount Vernon. He was noted 
for sound judgment, rigid integrity^ and unpretending manners. — 
Howe's History of Virginia, pp. 510-513. 

LiiE Famii,^- 

1. R. E. Lee 

2. Richard Lee 

3. Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee 

4. Chas. Lee 

5. Smith Lee 

Richard Henry Lee 
Thomas Lee 
Francis Lightfoot Lhe 
Wm. Lee 
Arthlr Lee 



Westmoreland, the Plant-bed of an Ancient Civil- 
ization is Still the Cradle of the New — Her 
Efficient Board of Supervisors — The Sand- 
Clay System of Good Roads. 

Westmoreland County of To-day (1912). The New Westmoreland, 
Her Present Conditions, Her Progress, Her Climate and 
Soil. Her Agricultural, Indmtrial, and Commercial Re- 
sources and Assets. Her Efficient Board of Supervisors 
Standing for the "Economy of Good Roads" — the Slogan 
of Common Sense. 

The future historian will write the glorious history of West- 
moreland. This is no history — only a brief chapter, Job said: 
"Behold my desire is that mine adversary had written a book." 
This, in former days, passed for as sore an evil as a good man could 
think of wishing to his worst enemy. 

Whether any of my enemies (I hope I have none) ever wished 
me so great an evil, I know not. But certain it is, I never dreamed 
of writing a book. The humble writer, with the burden of other 
duties, assumes no such task, and aspires to accomplish no such 

The original scope and purpose of this short chapter was to have 
no Part I., and no Part II., but it was intended only to refer to 
the historical features of Westmoreland and her magnificent memo- 
rials, and to print the eloquent tributes to her name and fame — 
her great men and the richer trophies of their brilliant deeds; and 
not to present even in brief review her present conditions, her pro- 
gress, her climate and rsoil, and her agricultural, industrial and 
commercial resources and assets. But we have been bep-uiled into 
speaking of these present conditions so attractive to the home- 
seeker and so inviting for agricultural development, remunerative 
investment, grand enterprise and splendid opportunity, and have 
adopted Part I. and Part II — the old and the new Westmoreland. 

When Bishop Meade, after exclaiming "Fuit Uiuni I't ingens 
gloria Dardanidum ," uttered the following prophetic words, "We 
trust there awaits for Westmoreland a greater glory than the 
former,'^ no one realized that in a few decades that Dr. McKim, 
standing upon its sacred soil, could, and would utter the fulfil- 
ment of the prophecy, and would proclaim — Dr. Beale voicing the 


universal sentiment — that ''to-day a greater glory does indeed be- 
long to Westmoreland than when the noble Bishop contemplated 
her fallen grandeur." 

Westmoreland county of to-day, with all her proud tradition 
of the past, not unlike her mother, the Old Dominion, "has yet to 
reach her zenith. The years that have been put behind her are the 
years of a formative period ; the decades that are to come will mark 
the fruition of her hopes. Henceforth, industry, as exemplified in 
a hundred forms, will be her gracious helpmeet. ISTor must the 
Virginian of future years walk in a narrow path, for he has many 
'fields of usefulness in which he may expand. Never did any coun- 
try under the sun offer more diversity of opportunity, or finer 
chances for founding of fortunes than does this State." 

"The time-honored Commonwealth, indeed, now walks with 
quickened step, despite the lapse of nearly three centuries. Her 
(-lasticity is the child of prosperity." 

Westmoreland, the birthplace and plant bed of an ancient civ- 
ilization, is still the cradle of a new. While her landscape is glori- 
ous with the sheen of golden harvests, she, too, is gathering tbe 
ripe fruitage of her rich vintage. Her waste places are being re- 
stored, and blossoming as the rose. Her soil is supporting an en- 
terprising people, and still invites the stran-ger, honest and bona 
fide, by "benevolent assimilation" to swell a still more teeming 
population. Her churches are being restored and rebuilt. Her 
people are animated by a spirit worthy of her great past. Her 
young men are fired with a noble ambition to emulate the patriot- 
ism and virtues of her heroes of former days. Her men of intel- 
lectual and moral stature worthy of Westmoreland's splendid his- 
tory, are at hand to represent her in the councils of the State and 
nation. Her women are lovely, gentle, and queenly. When Alexis 
de Tocqueville, whom Mr. Gladstone termed "the Burke of his 
age," visited America in the last century and wrote his '^Democracy 
in America," he said: "If I were asked to what I attributed the 
greatness and peace of America, I should say to the sanctity of home 
and to the purity of the women." And the Hon. James Bryce, 
Ministoi' Plenipotentiary to this country representing the Court 
of St. James, says in "The American Commonwealth": "I have 
heard keen American observers predict that these Southern States 
will be the chief nursery ground of statesmen in the future, and 
will thus assert an ascendency which they can not yet obtain by their 
votes, because population grows more slowly in the South than in 
Eastern cities, or in Western prairies." 

Mr. Gladstone, in his "Kin Beyond the Sea," page 204, said of 
America : "She will probably become what we are now. the head 

Board of Supervisors, Westmokicland Colntv, \ .\. 

David Hungerford Griffith Hun. Wm. Mavo, Chairman, Kx-State Senator 

\Vm. H. Sanfokd 


servant in the great household of the woi-ld, the employer ol" all 
employed, because her service will l)e most and ablest." lie also 
said : "No hardier republicanism was generated in New England 
than in the slave States of the South, which produced so many of 
the great statesmen of America," — Life of Gladstone^ by Dr. J. L. 
M. Curry, page 214. 

What has Westmoreland done since the war, and what is she 
doing to-day in the march of progress and civilization, in energy 
and the activities of life? 

The efficient Board of Supervisors of Westmoreland stand for 
the economy of good roads. They advocate the economical aspect 
of good roads reform. They have adopted, with the State's aid 
and the State Highway Commission, the sand-clay system, and are 
actively projecting the same. Good roads are the cheapest. This 
is the slogan of common sense. We clip from a contemporary on 
the "Economy of Good Roads." It says : 

"The plea that good roads are 'too costly' belongs only to the 
cheap statesman, the mossback, and old-fashioned publications. It 
has no place in the consideration of the problem of modern road 

"The primary purpose in securing good roads is to eliminate the 
enormous and everlasting cost of bad roads. Modern country roads 
bear the same relation to the rural districts as paved streets bear 
to the cities. Paved streets for municipalities are first of all, a 
business proposition. The comfort and convenience afforded by 
them is a matter of secondary consideration. No city could be 
l)uilt on mud streets. Neither can agricultural communities be de- 
veloped on mud roads. And any condition that retards the fullest 
development of country life is an expense that spells ruin and bank- 
ruptcy in the end. 

"The old wooden plow could be purchased for less than the 
modern implements used to break the soil. But no farmer could 
maintain his farm with a wooden plow. It would prove too costly 
an experiment. The ox team could be purchased for less money 
than the draft horses cost, but the ox team has been abandoned as 
an expense that no modern farmer could stand. 

"Mud roads retain the same relation to modern progress as the 
wooden plow and the ox team. Virginia wastes $1,000,000 every 
year on mud roads. It is a system of 'throwing good money after 
bad money' in an attempt to 'improve' roads that need to be rebuilt, 
and after millions have been wasted in this manner the same old 
mud roads exist. Nothing is left to show for all the expense. 

"The $10,000,000 Virginia has lost in the mud holes of its 


country roads in the past ten years would have given the State an 
excellent system of permanent highways. It would have meant an 
investment that would now be paying big dividends to the farm 
owners of that State." 

"That is the common sense of the case. The failure to construct 
good roads is equivalent to a tremendous waste of money. Good 
roads, we say again, are the cheapest roads." 

The Times-Dispatch says : 


The Great Eeform. 

Interest in good roads does not abate, either in Virginia or the 
other States of the South. A casual perusal of the press of this 
part of the nation proves that all interesting good roads articles 
and good roads editorial expressions are copied in full in a major- 
ity of the papers, and there are the most impressive signs of the 
fact that this mighty reform has a tightening grasp upon the dif- 
ferent States in which the movement has once been started. 

In making sentiment for improved highways, we hope that 
none of our contemporaries will let up a minute in the fight. Wliat 
has already been done in Virginia in the good roads reform has 
been excellent, but in order to keep step with other Southern States 
we must continue ceaselessly the campaign for better highways. 

Is the good roads question a live one? Are other States taking 
an interest in it? 

The other day a great convention met at Birmingham and dele- 
gates from almost every community in Alabama were there, eager 
to learn more about good roads. To this meeting in the cause of 
better roads not only came an army of interested delegates, but also 
two-thirds of the Legislature of the State. The people out there 
are intensely worked up al)out good roads, and they are not going 
to rest until they have them. 

Calling this convention one of 'Vast significance" — and rightly 
so — the Birmingham News said editorially : 

'There is no subject before the people of Alabama to-day that 
has a more vital bearing upon the progress of the State than this 
matter of good roads. It is a physical impossil)i]ity for any people 
to advance rapidly either intellectually or materially without the 
means of intercommunication, and the better the means the more 
rapid the advance. If the children of the State are to be educated 
and are to reap the benefits that come by reason of contact with 
the forces and influences that make for advancement, this end must 
be accomplished througli the construction of good roads. If the 


farmers of Alabama are to prosper, are to get the fullest returns 
upon the labor they expend upon the soil, they must l)e brought 
into close touch with the consumers, an end impossible without good 
roads. If the people as a whole are to advance in proportion to 
their opportunties it must inevitably be through the construction 
of improved highways." 

The name being changed, this applies with equal force to Vir- 
ginia. The issue is live. It vitally concerns the welfare of the 
people, their comfort, their happiness, their prosperity. It is a 
great reform, and too much cannot be said in its favor. 

Another contemporary on the ''Value of Good Koads," says: 

For a part of this week the Alabama Good Eoads Association 
has been in session at Birmingham, and powerful interest has been 
manifested in this far-reaching reform. President John Craft had 
some very good things to say in his opening address, and one of 
them was : 

"The vigor of the State lies in its industrial vitality and the 
great arteries through which the life blood of the Commonwealth 
must course are its highways. Therefore, I believe it to be our 
bounden duty to labor toward having the great thoroughfares of 
the people built in the healthiest manner possible. By having a 
permanent and thorough construction of roads, distance will be 
shortened, time will no longer be measured by hours. The time of 
travel will be lessened so much that the farmer who lives twenty- 
five miles or more from the steamboat landing, railroad station, or 
the city, will be enabled to bring his products to llie place of ship- 
ment and return between sunrise and nightfall. 

"The farmer deserves better highways. It is ho who digs from 
the soil precious gold represented by the products of his labor. He 
cannot be prosperous if the hauling cost is twenty-five cents per 
ton per mile, when it should be eight or ten cents." 

There is the gist of this matter. It is in the cost of transpor- 
tation that the farmer sustains his greatest loss. That loss is 
equivalent to a most extravagant waste. 


Besides What Nature Has Done, Westmoreland 
Stands for Civic Improvement and Educa- 
tional Advancement, and the Better- 
ment of all Conditions. 

Her People Industrious, and Progressive. — Civic Improvement and 
Educational Advancement. — New and Handsome Homes, 
and Erection of High School Buildings, and the Establish- 
ment of Public High Schools. — Two Practical Ecomonic 
Problems Confronting the People:. More Population of 
Energetic, Robust and Frugal Men, and Quicker Travel and 

Besides what Nature has done, and its natural potentialities; 
besides men of muscular energy and brains, men of lofty ideals and 
high standards, men of human endeavor, men who teach with 
pure lives the tenets of our holy religion, there is a progressive 
spirit abroad. The people are industrious and progressive. Be- 
sides her commercial activity, Westmoreland shows civic improve- 
ment, and educational advancement. She can point to a large 
number of high schools and high school buildings second to none 
in the rural districts; to teachers in these schools who are special- 
ists in their line and the best instruction given. New and hand- 
some homes are going up, and charm us as we pass by. Altogether. 
a spirit of public improvement. The tide of population must and 
will turn from the over-crowded cities, and the natural gravitation 
to these attractive homes is inevitable. There has been a marked 
progress in the improved system of good roads, and for the better- 
ment of all conditions along educational, industrial and agricul- 
tural lines. Here, speaking of this, it is no longer a postulate, 
but an axiom; not an experiment, but a demonstration, that edu- 
cation is the hope of a Republic, and a menace and death itself to 
a monarchy. Popular education in our country is the idol of the 
people, and its pride. We are beguiled into giving an extract 
from Lord Brougham, whose beautiful tribute to the immortal 
Washington is published elsewhere in this booklet. We publisli 
the extract because they are the famous words of one of the famous 
men of the world. We do not publish it to minimize the soldier, 
but to exalt the schoolmaster. These burning words are perhaps 
one of the first and greatest tributes to Iho public education of 
the masses, and has done as much for public schools as anything 
ever said. In his speech in the House of Coitunons on January 
28, 1828. on the address from the Crown, Brougham severely re- 


ferred to the Commander-in-Cli.ief of the Arniy, the Duke of 
Wellington, who was also the Prime Minister and the head of the 
government. While he seemed to consider the presence of the 
conqueror of Napoleon at Waterloo in the chief councils of the 
King a harmless state of affairs, Brougham nevertheless argued 
against the practice of putting military men in the high civic 
places in the government. This objection, in substance, was the 
theme of the speech and the quoted paragraph below, which a 
current report said was received with cheers and laughter, was a 
very ifitting climax to Brougham's notable effort : 

"The country sometimes heard with dismay that the soldier 
was abroad. JSTow there is another person abroad — a less important 
person — in the eyes of some insignificant person — whose labors 
had tended to produce this state of things. The schoolmaster is 
abroad ! And I trust more to the schoolmaster, armed with his 
primer, than to the soldier in full military array, for upholding 
and extending the liberties of my country." 

Two practical economic problems still seem to confront our 
people : 

1. Nature has lavished her treasures on them in magnificent 
waterways, estuaries and arms of the sea. They desire, however, 
quicker transit and travel by rail, and transportation of their pro- 
ducts. Like Rasselas, King of Abyssinia, who yearned to see be- 
yond his lovely mountain home and environment, they arc restless 
to reach beyond their sea-girt horizon. 

2. They need a larger population — say 50,000 more of robust, 
energetic, frugal men — to cut up and divide the large landed 
estates and holdings, and to develop the latent natural resources, 
food supplies and materials for industry. Give them 50,000 more 
of population, and the problems are solved. Eoads — steam and 
<,'lectric — and good roads for automobiles and every appliance for 
travel and transportation will be assured and complete. Which 
will come first? Which will be the one to bring the other? The 
people desire both, and both will come. The people of Westmore- 
land are unlike good old Doctor Johnson, author of "Rasselas," 
who took a gloomy view of life, and wrote "of an age that melts 
in unperceived decay.'' They are optimists and not idle dreamers. 
We wish for an Irving to picture tlte peace of the people. 

Just as this booklet goes to press the re-turn survey of the now 
railroad from Doswell to the deep waters of the great Wicomico is 
nearly completed. Channing M. Ward, recently of Richmond 
county, Va., is the promoter. What a feeder from the rich granary 
of the great Rappahannock River valley and the Northern Neck 
for the great metropolitan city of Richmond this will be. We wish 
it a God speed. Because it will be a mighty revelation and a con- 
necting link Ix^fwcen these grand people. 

Westmoreland, With Her Diversified Farm Pro- 
ducts, Thriving Industries and Plants, Points 
to Her Excellent Financial Condition 
and Low Rate of Taxation. 

What Westmoreland of To-day is Doing. — Her Excellent Financial 
Conditions, Progress in Improved Buildings and Low Rate 
of Taxation. — Her Diver^ijied Farm Products, Thriving 
Industries and Plants. — Beautiful Monuments to Her Sol- 
diers. — W estjnoreland Camp C. V., Pension Board, and 
Washington and Lee Chapter U. D. C. 

Westmoreland county can point with pride to her excellent 
financial condition, progress in improved buildings, and low rate 
of taxation. Its diversified farm products, fruit culture and can- 
neries — climate and soil for vegetable and trucking industries — 
rich products of its tidal waters; its sheep industry of the finest 
imported breeds; Eappahannock and Potomac Eivers, inlets and 
tributaries, furnishing water power for finest manufacturies and 
plants and transportation facilities; churches, public schools, banks: 
Bank of Westmoreland at Colonial Beach, Bank of Kinsale at Kin- 
sale, and Bank of Montross at Montross, with deposits, resources, 
and financial earnings of the people generally — figures that speak 
volumes for soundness of local business conditions. Westmoreland 
Enquirer and Colonial Beach Becord, newspaper, at Colonial Beach ; 
good telephone communication; accessible to the markets of Bal- 
timore, Washington. Alexandria, and Fredericksburg. Health 
superb; artesian wells numerous, fine flow and delightful water. 
Lands enhancing in value and more and more in demand with 
rising prices; riparian privileges; splendid opportunities for the 
home seeker and investor. 

The most casual observer does not fail to see tbe progress, 
energy and activities of the people. 

A beautiful marble shaft, erected by the United States Govern- 
ment, now marks Wakefield, the birthplace of Washington ; and 
the name and fame of the great chieftain. General E. E. Lee, shed 
a brighter luster around Stratford, his birthplace. 

A costly and beautiful monument, erected to the Confederate 
dead, stands in front of tbe handsome, new courthouse at Montross, 


the county seat. The Westmoreland Camp of Confederate Vete- 
rans is one of the most active in the State, and has its glorious 
annual reunions to rekindle and keep bright ly burning its camp 
fires, to revive sweet memories and to renew loyal fraternal greet- 

The company rolls and rosters of every honorable soldier in 
the service of the Confederate States are being filed and recorded 
amongst the archives by order of the Circuit Court in pursuance 
of the act of the General Assembly of Virginia. It should be re- 
corded as a great historical fact that even President Eoosevelt in 
1905, in Richmond, Va., the late capital of the Confederacy, said : 
"On the honor roll of those American worthies, whose greatness is 
not only for the age, but for all time; not only for the nation, 
but for all the world — on this honor roll Virginia's name stands 
above others." And no man knew better than he the story of the 
great country of which he was the head. 

As has been so often said, and should be thoroughly emphasized, 
the names of all the Confederate soldiers will never be perpetu- 
ated and rescued from oblivion except by these muster rolls and 
rosters. Granite and bronze may crumble and perish, but copies 
of the battle rolls printed and preserved in our own archives and 
distributed through the great libraries of the world would be as 
secure of immortality as anything human can be. 

The plea of Westmoreland is for the private soldiers, and they 
are as dear to them as the epaulettes of Washington in his buff 
and blue, and the stars of Lee in his glorious gray won by their 
blood and valor. 

On her monument are inscribed the names of her private sol- 
diers, and on her memorial tablet in her court room the names of 
her cadet heroes, Joseph Christopher Wheelwright and Samuel 
Francis Atwill, who fell at the battle of New Market, May 15, 
1864, together with the beaufiful verses of Virginia's brilliant poet, 
Armistead C. Gordon, immortalizing the deeds and memory of 
these men and these cadet heroes of the Virginia Military Institute 
in that battle. 

Let us rejoice that this proud old county is saved from a similar 
everlasting reproach such as Thackeray administered to the Eng- 
lish Parliament and people, when, upon visiting Waterloo and 
reading the memorial tablets to the British officers who fell on 
that famous field and found that the name of not a single private 
appeared on them, he dipped his pen in gall and wrote these blast- 
ing words: "Here, indeed, they lie sure enough; the Honorable Col- 
onel This of the Guards, Captain That of the Hussars, Major So and 
So of the Dragoons, brave men and good, who did their duty by 


their country and fell in the performance of it. Amen, But 1 
confess fairly that in looking at these I felt very much disappointed 
at not seeing the names of the men as well as the officers. Are 
they to be counted for naught ? A few more inches of marble to 
each monument would have given space for all the names of the 
men, and the men of that day were the winners of the battle. We 
have right to be as grateful individually to any given private as 
to any given officer; their duties were very much the same. Wliy 
should the country reserve its gratitude for the genteel occupiers 
of the Army-list and forget the gallant fellows whose humble 
names were written in the Eegimental books? English glory is too 
genteel to meddle with those humble fellows. She does not con- 
descend to ask the names of the poor devils whom she kills in her 
service. Why was not every private man's name written upon the 
otones in Waterloo Church as well as every officer? Five hundred 
pounds to the stone cutters would have served to carve the whole 
catalogue and paid the poor compliment of recognition to men who 
died in doing their duty. If the officers deserved the stone, the 
men did." 

The efficient Pension Board, with the co-operation of the Camp, 
through the Circuit Court in pursuance of the act of the General 
Assembly, is aiding all the citizens of the county who were disabled 
by wounds received during the War Between the States while 
serving as soldiers, sailors, or marines, and such as served during 
said war ais soldiers, sailors, or marines who are now disabled by 
disease contracted during the war, or by the infirmities of age, 
and the widows of soldiers, sailors, or marines who lost their lives 
in said service, or whose death resulted from wounds received, or 
disease contracted in said service. 

The Washington and Lee Chapter U. D. C, at Kinsale, Va., is 
bestowing crosses of honor, and making more sacred the cause for 
which our heroes fought, and rendering it more imperative that the 
children of the rising generation be taught that their forefathers 
were heroes, and not rebels, "lest we forget." 

All these benign and powerful agencies and instrumentalities 
spring from, and are the result of the reverence for our Confederate 
heroes. All are vicing with each other to strew flowers along their 
pathway, to make soft their pillows, and to pour from their ala- 
baster boxes on their heads the very precious ointment of spikenard, 
of love and charity, kind deeds and sweet benefactions. 



Stratford to Be Dedicated to Virginia as a Memorial 
of the Lees — Old Yecomico Church to Be Re- 
habilitated Under Control of the 
Diocesan Board of Trustees. 

The Lee Birthplace Memorial Committee of the Virginia State 
Camp, Patriotic Order of America^ has an Option on Strat- 
ford as a Memorial to the Lees, to he Dedicated to Vir- 

The Lee Birthplace Memorial Committee of the Virginia State 
Camp, Patriotic Order Sons of America, passed a resolution taking 
up the patriotic work of purchasing Stratford, September 10, 1907 ; 
endorsed by the National Camp of the order, September 25, 1907 ; 
the State Camp of Maryland, August 12, 1908 ; New Jersey, Au- 
gust 19, 1908; Delaware, August 25, 1908, and Pennsylvania, Au- 
gust 27, 1908. 

Stratford will be a memorial to the Lees, and a room dedicated 
to each one.. After the work is done, it is proposed to present the 
property to the State of Virginia, to be perpetual for all time as a 
memorial to the great men born under its roof or connected with 
its history. The committee at present holds an option on the pro- 

Extract from Eesolutions. 

Resolved, That it is the purpose of this committee to have 
Stratford purchased by the people, and remain forever the prop- 
erty of the people, to refurnish it in the style of the period when 
these great men were horn, to build a wharf and make it a place 
where patriotic citizens may gather and refresh their memory with 
the great deeds performed by these heroes of the past. 

On July 15, 1906, a movement was inaugurated by Rev. John 
Poyntz Tyler, Archdeacon of Virginia, an honored son of West- 
moreland and an accomplished preacher, by a bi-centennial cele- 
bration to raise a memorial fund" for the preservation of old Yeo- 
comico Church, in Cople Parish, Westmoreland county. Right 


Rev. Eobert A. Gibson, Bishop of Virginia, commended the work 
of endowing this colonial church, bnilt in 1706 (the first one be- 
fore 1655). In his striking appeal he calls it "a historic land- 
mark of the very highest interest," and says "it has a romantic 
story and one which is in many of its aspects pattietic." 

The present members of the congregation of Cople Parish earn- 
estly went to Avork to see that this sacred edifice, once the worship- 
ping place of so many whose names are indelibly associated with 
the leading events of Virginia's history, should be preserved from. 
decay. The faithful committee, composed of Wat Tyler Ma}'©, S. 
sA Downing Cox, and Walter R. Crabbe, appointed by them and aided 
kindly by Eev. George Wni. Beale, D. I)., with his historical data, 
prepared and published an attractive and charming sketch of the 
church and the people who have worshipped within its walls. Kind 
and generous friends have responded to the call to contribute, 
among whom notably is P. H. Mayo. Esq., Richmond, Va. ; and 
Hon. Wm. P. Hubbard, member of Congress from the Wlieeling 
District, W. Va. Russell Hubbard and Mrs. Joseph Brady have 
generously contributed to erect a memorial to their sister, Mrs. 
Julia Hubbard Tyler, wife of Wat H. Tyler. Westmoreland county, 
Va. The fund is placed under control of the Diocesan Board of 
Trustees, to be permanently invested, and the proceeds used to keep 
the old building and enclosure in repair. Among those who wor- 
shipped at Yeocomico were Colonel George Eskrid-ge, an eminent 
lawyer, after whom George Washington was named, and to whom 
was committed the care and tutelage of Mary Ball, the mother of 
General Washington, when she was about thirteen years of age — a 
sacred duty by the young girl's mother in her last will and testa- 
ment, and one which Colonel Eskridge sacredly kept; John Bush- 
rod, one of the Burgesses of Westmoreland, whose family name be- 
came distinguished by his grandson, the Hon, Bushrod Washington 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, born at Bush field, in 
Westmoreland, and a favorite nephew of General Washington; and 
John Rochester, who was a vestryman of Yeocomico in 1785. who 
subsequently removed to and settled in New York. Colonel Na- 
thaniel Rochester, after whom the great city of Rochester, N. Y,, 
was named, was born in 1752 on a plantation in Cople Parish, West- 
moreland county, on which his father, grandfather and great-grand- 
father had lived. 

Rev. Thomas Smith was minister here 1773-1776. He was a 
very picturesque character, and a man of force and patriotism. We 
see him presiding over the Committee of Safety at Westmoreland 
Courthouse, with its famous resolutions on June 22, 1774, and 


May 23, 1775 — tlie first time wlien tlie Boston Harbor was blocked 
up, and the second time when Lord Dunmore seized the powder in 
the magazine at Williamsburg, Va. How many more names could 
the writer record if the limits and space of this little chapter would 
permit ! When the pilgrim and stranger treads this sacred spot 
so full of sadness, yet of the sweetest memories and associations, 
and sees the graves — many neglected — thai contain the ashes of a 
grand people and noble race, he feels around him tlie spirit oi 
Westminster Abbey. 

But we must add the name of Bishop John Brockenbrough 
Newton, son of Hon. Willoughby Newton, member of Congress, 
and grandson of Judge William Brockenbrough, Supreme Court 
of Appeals of Mrginia, who worshipped here. He was a Bishojj 
that the clergy loved, and one whom in the Diocesan Council <~ 
Virginia that appointed him, tlie laity clamored for, claimed and 
elected as their favorite. He had all that birth, blood and heredity 
could give. Mature had given him, besides mental endowment and 
a luminous intellect, robust common sense; but the best thing that 
can be said about him is that he made the world brighter as he 
passed through it, and it has been told that the man who sheds a 
little sunshine on his course, is himself lighted into the great 

Bishop Payne, late Bishop of Africa, is claimed by Westmore- 
land, too. He lived and died near by in Washington Parish. After 
spending all in Africa, with failing health he came back to West- 
moreland to die. He named his home Cavalla, and there died with 
harness on him. When I think of grand old Bishop Payne and 
his coming home to die, the thrilling words of Goldsmith's ''De- 
serted Village" fill me with pathos: 

"In all my w^anderings round this world of care, 
In all my griefs — and God has given my share — 
I still had hopes, my latest hours to crown, 
Amidst these humble bowers to lay me down ; 
To husband out life's taper at the close. 
And keep the flame from wasting by repose : 
I still had hopes, for pride attends us still, 
Amidst the swains to show my book-learned skill, 
Around my fire an evening group to draw, 
And tell of all I felt, and all I saw ; 
And as a hare, whom hounds and horns pursue, 
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew, 
I still had hopes, my long vexations past. 
Here to return — and die at home at last." 


There is something more than a romance and a tradition still 
in Westmoreland that is treasured by its votaries like the perfume 
of sweet incense, and throws a halo around its people. It is this : 
that there is an unseen crimson thread of blood and kinship be- 
tween the Campbells, Patrick Henry and Lord Brougham 

Bishop Meade and other cultured writers state that Parson 
Campbell (Eev. Archibald Campbell, minister of Washington Par- 
ish,) was from Scotland; was related to the Stuart and Argyle 
families of that country, and an uncle of Thomas Campbell, the 
poet. That lawyer Campbell, a most eloquent man, a brother of 
the poet, married a daughter of Patrick Henry, and that Patrick 
Henry, on his mother's side, from the stock of Eobertson the his- 
torian, was in that way a relative of Lord Brougham, so that his 
descendants are connected with the poet Campbell, thus showing 
a connection between our great orator and one of the greatest poli- 
ticians and one of the sweetest poets of the age. 

Lastly, the Mayos worshipped at the old Yeocomico Church, 
and the graveyard contains the ashes of some of them. Judge Rob- 
ert Mayo married Miss Campbell of this distinguished family. He 
was erudite and strong. His two sons. Colonel Robert M., mem- 
ber of Congress, and Colonel Joseph, distinguished in journalism 
and literature, both came to the Bar splendidly equipped by edu- 
cation, and both full of honors and distinction as officers in the 
War Between the States. At the Bar they attained distinction, 
earning for themselves the appellation applied by the holy evan- 
gelist to Joseph of Arimathea. "an honorable counsellor." A sweet 
fiagrance lingers around their names. Wm. Mayo, another son, 
ex-State Senator, and at present chairman Board of Supervisors, 
of fine character and mental endowment, is one of the most pro- 
gressive and leading citizens of this county. 

The question may be asked by some hypercritical and super- 
sensitive person why reference has not been made in this booklet 
to other churches. The answer is ready : because it is not a volume 
of churches, families and biographies, and is limited in space. 
There is no class, caste, degree, nor denomination, church, nor 
family to be served in this booklet. The manuscript has been with- 
held from the publisher by the writer to take in conference and 
confidence the representatives of all the churches to get their wis- 
dom and judgment on this very point and question. Yeocomico 
has been treated because of the early and historic character of the 
church alone. The sweetest and most hallowed memories cluster 
around the other churches, its graves and cemeteries as well as 
Yeocomico. The greatest and grandest men of Westmoreland were 


not all buried within the hallowed precincts of Yeocoinico. In these 
latter years General E. L. T. Beale, as statesman and soldier, mem- 
ber of Congress and Brigadier-General of Cavalry, C. S. A., leads, 
and his name will live brighter and brighter as the years pass by. 
Thomas Brown, late Governor of Florida, Hon. John P. Hunger- 
ford, Hon. Willoughby ISTewton, Judge John Critcher, Col. Richard 
Claybrook, the Bakers, the Lewises (Judge George W., as high as 
his soul was pure) ; the Walkers (W. W., the brilliant orator) ; 
Robert J. Washington, dashing and gifted, and Lloyd Washington, 
progressive and successful, his brother; Murphy; the Garnetts; 
(Gen. Thomas Stuart of Chancellorsville fame, and John, major C. 
S. A., and Dr. Algernon S., surgeon C. S. A., his bro'thers) ; the 
Beales (Rev. Geo. Wni. Beale, D. D., the accomplished scholar and 
divine; Robert, the sturdy and faithful judge, and Rev. Frank B. 
Beale, D. D., the earnest, faithful preacher of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ) ; Cox, Tayloe, Capt. Wm. Newton of the Hanover Troop, 
the Davis preachers, evangelical and scholarly; Joseph Christopher 
Wheelwright and Samuel Francis Atwill, the hero cadets of New 
Market; J. H. Wheelwright, president of the Consolidated Coal 
Company, West Virginia and Baltimore ; Wm. Hutt and J. Warren 
Hutt, clerks, and others — some still living — and others whose names 
are carved on the Confederate Monument as immortal, share in the 
glory of Westmoreland. Some shed lustre on the Confederate 
arms; some on her distinguished Bar and the holy ministry, and 
some in the other departments of life and progress. I wish I had 
t^pace to exalt and pay tribute to them. 


What the Most Distinguished and Highest 
Authorities Say of Westmoreland. 

But we must abbreviate this short chapter, and write finis. 
We must, however, give a few extracts from the highest authority 
as to the piesent condition of this great county — its material pro- 
gress — what the Hand-Booh of Virginia, The Manufacturer's 
Record, Baltimore, Md., and Governor Mann of Virginia say of 
progressive Virginia. 

Westmoreland County. 

Westmoreland was formed in 1653 from Northumberland, and 
is situated in the northeast portion of the State on the lower Poto- 
mac Eiver, fifty-ifive miles northeast from Richmond. Its average 
length is thirty miles, width ten miles. It contains an area of 245 
square miles, and a population by last census of 9,243, a gain of 
844 since 1890. 

The surface is generally level, l)ut hilly in some portions. Soil 
light loam on river bottoms, stiffer clay soil on uplands and easy of 

Farm products are corn, wheat, millet, rye. clover, and f)oas for 
hay. Potatoes, sweet and Irish, do well, and the raising of clover 
seed for market is a considerable industry. Orchard grass and 
timothy are successfully grown. Average yield per acre of corn 
twenty-five bushels, of wheat ten bushels, and of hay one and a half 
to two tons. Fruits of the various varieties, such as apples, peaches, 
pears, plums, strawberries, etc., grow well, and several canneries 
are located in the county. The climate and soil is especially 
adapted to the raising of vegetables, and trucking is becoming quite 
an important industry. The numerous creeks and inlets along the 
Potomac boundary abound in the finest fish, oysters and wild fowl. 
There are large natural oyster beds on these tidal waters, and tli(> 
species of fish obtained embrace trout, rock herring, shad, and 
perch, which are caught by nets, traps and seines. 

Grazing facilities are fairly good, and stock does well, especially 
sheep, which are receiving increased attention and proving quite 
remunerative. That class of stock is being improved by the im- 
portation of better breeds. There are no railroads in the county, 
but excellent transportation facilities are afforded by steamboats on 


the Rappahannock and Potomac to Fri'dericksbur<r, Washington, 
Baltimore, and Alexandria markets. Marl is abundant, also marsh 
mnd and oyster shell lime. There is some asli, po])lar, et«';., but the 
timber consists chiefly of pine, of which a large amount of cord 
Avood and lumber are annually cut and shipped. 

Water and drainage are furnished by the Rappahannock and 
Potomac Rivers; and the numerous tributaries of the latter pene- 
trating inland about ten or twelve miles, with good water power, 
are utilized. Besides numerous saw and grain mills, the manu- 
factories of the county consist of a number of fruit-canning fac- 
tories, two plant? for blasting and crushing marl, and one for dig- 
ging and grinding infusorial earths. 

The climate is temperate. Health generally good. Water good 
and abundant in the uplands; not so good on water courses, except 
where artesian is used. Churches numerous — principally Baptist, 
Methodist and Episcopal. There are also a large number of public 
schools. Telephone service from Fredericksburg to every important 
point in county. Financial conditions excellent, and considerable 
progress shown in improved buildings. 

This is one of the oldest settled counties in the State and in 
colonial days was the home of wealth and influence, the immigrants 
to the county from England comprising many of the rich and aris- 
tocratic families of the old country. There are many valuable and 
highly important estates in the county, and by the more modern 
and improved system of agriculture which has been adopted i^he 
past few years, the waste lands are being reclaimed and the farm- 
ing interests generally improved. This county enjoys the proud 
distinction of having been the birthplace o,f two of the Presidents 
of the United States — George Washington and James Monroe — be- 
sides another no less honored and distinguished Virginian, General 
R. E. Lee. Montross, the county seat, with a population of about 
150, is an ancient town of some importance, located near the south- 
ern border, six miles distant from landings on both Potomac and 
Rappahannock Rivers, with which there is daily mail communica- 
tion. There has recently been erected a handsome new court house 
and clerk's office. 

Town of Colonial Beach has sprung into existence, and has 
nearly reached tHe population of a city, and real estate has doubled 
in value, and with a prospective railroad in the near future. With 
the advantages we have for trucking, etc., with men of muscular 
tnorgy and brains, I see no reason why this county should not 
occupy her former position, i. e.. not only the "Athens," but the 
"Garden spot of America." — TTnnd-Boolx of Virginin, 1910. p. 241. 
Department of Agriculture and Immigration, George W. Koiner, 


Colonial Beach. 

Since the above was published Colonial Beach looms np in the 
limelight as "the Atlantic City of Washington." "Historically 
marked, and an ideal resort for rest and recreation" — "the Mecca 
of the people of Washington." 

Its attractive little Hand-Book, just out, beautifully illustrated, 
has a prospectus of its progress, and represents the population dur- 
ing the summer months about 15,000. 

"The Potomac Eiver is one of the most historic and beautiful 
in the world. It has not the grandeur of the Hudson or the St. 
Lawrence, but its forest-crowned hills, mirrored in the placid 
bosom of the water, nature has painted a picture that is not soon 
forgotten. It is restful." 

Its bright outlook still brightens as we read "the ozone-laden 
air is unsurpassed" — "the salt water bathing is superb-^as heavily 
laden with saline matter as the very ocean." It all reads like a 
fairyland. With its town council and mayor, its municipal man- 
agement, and its progress under the auspices of Colonial Beach 
Company and Colonial Real Estate Co., Incorporated^ with its 
"Classic Shore," it looks like ideal homes are there, and invites 
the "new comer with a hearty welcome and cordial hand shake." 
With its new lines across the Potomac to Pope's Creek, connecting 
with trains to Washington and Baltimore in little over one hour — 
the one under management of Evan Owen, Esq., and the other 
more lately chartered as the Colonial Beach and Pope's Creek 
Steamboat Company (Hon. George Mason, president), it is a town 
of progress and growth. 

Alfalfa, Fruit Growing and Commercial Orcharding. 

The Farmers' Bulletin, Department of Agriculture and Immi- 
gration, Virginia, No. 8, 1910, designates alfalfa growing as the 
"irreat money crop," and in it Capt. J. F. Jack writes : "I am 
thoroughly convinced that alfalfa can be successfully grown in 
Virginia for commercial purposes in quantities large enough to 
make it a profitable investment. This is not a theory, but a fact 
which has been demonstrated on Belle Grove and Walsingham 
estates (Port Conway, Va.)," just across the county line. 

Farmers' Bulletin, No. 3, 1904, is enthusiastic on fruit grow- 
ing, commercial orcharding, high flavor and keeping quality of ap- 
ples, also peaches, pears and cherries. 


Virginia As She Was and As She Is. 

Virginia, "the land of sunshine" — ''the gem of the Sunny 
South" — has been called the Arcadia of America. Some three 
hundred years ago, when the quaint little ships, Susan Constant, 
Discovery, and Godspeed, sailed up James River one sunny April 
day in the year 1607, from the terrors of the raging seas in this 
unexplored country, and founded on its banks Jamestown, the 
first permanent English settlement on the American continent, it 
is said this Arcadian land sent its perfumed breath far out to the 
ocean long before these pioneers in Anglo-Saxon civilization reached 
the borders of the Old Dominion. Then they looked upon the 
shores carpeted with grass and flowers, and cool groves of stately 

The grand old Commonwealtli has been called the "Mother of 
Presidents, States, and Statesmen.*' She has been called the 
"Athens of America" for her culture and learning. She has been 
called the "Flanders of the South" by reason of her border posi- 
tion, and because more than six hundred battles were fought within 
her borders. Within those borders, too, was the capital of the 
Southern Confederacy, the storm cradled nation which fell, but 
which made the name of America respected by all the peoples of 
the world. Virginia has been called the "Netherlands of America" 
because the seat of one of the foremost commonwealths of modern 
times. She has been called the "Switzerland of America" for pic- 
turesque landscape, mountains and sky. And to-day she is called 
the "Venice of America" because this part has such majestic rivers, 
beautiful arms of the sea, and waterways. Washington called it the 
"Garden of America." 

Basking in the sunshine of God's mercy and in the plenitude 
of His forgiveness, as a Virginian I utter the beautiful lines of 
Dr. Henry Van Dyke : 

"These are the things I prize 

* And hold of dearest worth : 
Light of the sapphire skies, 

Peace of the silent hills. 
Shelter of forests, comfort of grass, 

Music of birds, murnuir of little rills. 
Shadows of clouds that swiftly pass, 

And after showers, 

The smell of flowers. 
And, best of all, along the way, friendship mirth." 


General Description of Virginia. 

No State in the Union offers more attractive inducements and 
extends a more inviting hand to the homeseeker than Virginia. 
In climate, diversity of soils, fruits, forests, water supply, mineral 
deposits and variety of landscape, including mountain and valley, 
hill and dale, she offers advantages that are unsurpassed. Truly 
did Captain John Smith, the adventurous and dauntless father of 
Virginia, suggest that "Heaven and earth never agreed better to 
frame a place for man's habitation." — Iland-Boolc of Virginia, 
1910, page 15. 

Progressive Virginia. 

What Virginia is to be is, perhaps, indicated by what Virginia 
has become in one generation. 

4c :jc ^ 4: :|c 4< iji 

Between 1900 and 1904: the capital invested in Virginia factories 
increased from $92,299,000 to $147,989,000. and "the value of 
factory products from $108,044,000 to $148,856,000. It is fair 
to estimate the capital at present invested in all manufacturing 
enterprises in the State at $175,000,000, and the value of their 
products at $180,000,000. 

The aggregate annual output of Virginia's farms, factories, 
mines and fisheries is at least $320,000,000. an increase of nearly 
$100,000,000 since the turn of the century. 

And yet Virginia has hardly begun to realize upon its natural 
potentialities. Its 40,000 square miles support a population of 
only 2,050,000, or about fifty persons to the square mile, while 
there are nearly 400 persons to each of the 8.000 square miles of 
that other American commonwealth, Massachusetts. Its popul;; 
tion of 3,200,000, have practically nothing of the advantage that 
Viririnia possesses, either as to latent natural resources within it- 
self, or as to closeness to food supplies and materials for industry. 
With the density of population equal to that of Massachusetts, Vir- 
ginia would have 12.000.000 inhabitants. It is capable of making 
that number of people happy as citizens. — Bichard TT. Edmonds, 
Editor Manufacturers' Record. Baltimore, Md., in IJaud-liool- of 
Virginia, 1910. 

January 27, 1911. 

What Governor Mann says. It was handed direct to the 
writer for this booklet: 

Virginia is steadily and rapidly progressing along all lines. Her 
manufacturing, commercial, industrial, and mining interests are 


yearly growing in the eflicioncy with wliich they are pressed and 
the products which they yield. Her transportation facilities extend 
to almost every section, and those not now reached are heing looked 
after, and will shortly have all of the advantages of the most 
favored localities. 

I am writing my real views when I say that the apple lairfls of 
this State cannot he surpassed in any other state or country. We 
produce fruit excelling in beauty and flavor, and improved methods 
have demonstrated that we can produce it at a wonderful profit. I 
can show single trees which have yielded as much as thirty barrels 
of the finest fruit. 

Few, if any. States produce more or better potatoes, round or 
sweet, and we are raising in our mountains the seed for our crops 
in the eastern part of the State. 

Our waters are full of the finest oysters, fish, crab, and clams, 
and abound in wild fowl. 

Our climate is deliglitful, our people intelligent, law abiding, 
and hospitable, and in every section springs and streams are plenti- 
ful, and their waters pure and delightful. 

In many of our counties blue grass is natural to the soil and 
comes without seeding as soon as opportunity and conditions are 
afforded, and as fine cattle, many of them for export, as can be 
raised anywhere, are the product of the blue, grass section. 

Virginia embraces twenty-five millions of acres of land, of 
Avhich less than four millions are under cultivation, and making 
due allowance for mountains, swamps, and waste land of every de- 
scription, it is safe to say we have ten millions of acres of arable 
land lying idle. Immediately after my inauguration as Governor, 
I, with others interested, took steps to secure the co-ordination of 
all the agricultural agencies o'f the State with the United States 
Department of Agriculture for the purpose of encouraging and pro- 
moting the adoption of scientific methods of agriculture, and these 
efforts, I am glad to say, have produced the most satisfactory re- 

To demonstrate the value and results of scientific methods of 
agriculture. Boys' Corn Clubs, in connection with our public schools, 
have been organized in many counties of the State, and each hoy 
required to cultivate an acre of land and keep a complete record of 
his method and time of cultivation, kind, quantity and cost of all 
fertilizers used, kind of seed, and, indeed, a complete history of 
the crop. All done under the direction of the United Agricultural 
Board of Virginia and the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. The interest, enthusiasm and results have been simply won- 
derful and have stirred up the farmers all over the State. 


One boy in Dinwiddle county, sixteen years old, on land under 
usual methods not producing over twenty-five or thirty bushels of 
corn to the acre, made 167 7/9 bushels of shelled corn on one acre, 
netting him over fifty-nine dollars, after paying rent for the land 
and not crediting its improved value, from which tliree crops can 
be made with very little expense. 

On land which, ten or fifteen years ago was thought to be unfit 
for grass, as much as six tons of hay to the acre has been made, 
and one of our farmers on one hundred and fifty acres made thirty- 
five thousand dollars worth of alfalfa. 

To sum up, in 1900 the total value of our agricultural products 
was $129,000,000; in 1910 they amounted to $336,000,000. 

In the eastern part of the State where the climate is tempered 
by the water, trucks and small fruits of all kinds and in great 
variety are bountifully and profitably produced. 

We have constructed under State control since 1907, five hun- 
dred and eighty miles of 'permanent highways, and since 1906 have 
built three hundred and eight high schools, elevated our standard 
and increased the value of school property $3,513,000. 

We are using the stored energy of generations to push old Vir- 
ginia forward. We revere the memories and traditions of the past, 
and remembering what has been done by her sons, we are deter- 
mined that our State, of history and tradition, shall be in the front 
rank of moral, educational and material progress. 

Wm. Hodges Mann, Governor. 


What Poets Sing and Pilgrims and Shriners Say 
of Westmoreland. 

We give below the tributes of those who have recently made pil- 
grimages to her historic and holy shrines — some from strangers — 
others from natives of her consecrated soil. When we read them 
we always feel that there is a charm and halo around Westmore- 
land, and when we tread its soil we feel that we are treading upon 
holy ground : 

Visit to Wakefield 

And Other Historic Places by a Paiiy from Tappahawwck — A 
Glimpse at the Various Places of Interest. 

Dear Mr. Editor^ — Not numbering you in our party as we had 
hoped on the excursion to Wakefield and Stratford last Thursday, I 
think perhaps you will be glad to hear something of this very 
pleasant and interesting trip. 

Our party, which consisted of Misses Dora Mason, Lewisburg, 
W. Va.; Beulah Gresham, Galveston, Texas; Genevieve Gresham, 
Jeannette and Charlotte Wright, and Mrs. T. R. B. Wright, 
boarded the steamer Caroline at Tappahannock. At Layton's our 
numbers were augmented by Mr. Ritchie Sale. At Leedstown we 
left the steamer and took vehicles to Wakefield monument — a drive 
of fourteen miles, but with fine horses we made the distance in less 
than two hours. 

One feels impressed as the shaft erected by the United States 
Government to mark the birthplace of George Washington comes 
in sight, rising tall and white in the green fields surrounding it; 
and I fancy even the gay young people felt the thrill of association 
of ideas. 

We were soon alighting, and looking — not at the monument — 
but for water. The drive had been horribly dusty, and our throats 
were parched and dry. Pope's Creek flowing at our feet and the 
bright waters of the Potomac flashing in the near distance — 
veritable Tantalus cups — "Water, water, everywhere and not a 
drop for me," quoted dolorously by more than one of our thirsty 
party. However, tea from our lunch basket washed some of the dust 
from our throats. 

The monument is a four-sided, severely plain marble shaft, I 
suppose between sixty and seventy feet high, with no carving, no 
inscription, simply : "The Birthplace of George Washington. 


Erected by the U. S. Government." It is enclosed by a ten-foot, 
black, iron railing. The turf is beautifully kept. 

After lunch under a tree (cherry) ? and stroll along Pope's 
Creek, and little time spent in gathering leaves and grasses for 
pressing, we drove to Mr. John Wilson's, who owns the Wakefield 
property, where we were most gracioiisly received and delightfully 
entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Wilson and their daughter, Miss Etta, 
Miss Egerton, Miss Boyden, Miss Janet Latane and her two broth- 
ers, grandchildren of the house. 

Here were shown us portraits of William Augustine Washing- 
ton and Sarah Tayloe, his wife, grandparents of Mrs. Wilson. ' Wil- 
liam Augustine was son of Augustine Washington, George Wash- 
ington's half brother. A table from the old Wakefield house, which 
was burned during the Revolution; an old English Bible, and 
other interesting Washington relics. 

I can think of no more ideal home for grandchildren to assem- 
ble and be happy : a wide, shady lawn ; rustic seats, swings, ham- 
mocks and chairs, under the fine old trees and flowers — flowers 
everywhere. And the charm of the master and mistress of the 
house to give the last needed touch to a picture it is pleasant to 
recall. Delicious refreshments were served us — and water ice 
cold — the whole party wondered if water was ever so good before. 
From Wakefield we drove eleven miles to Stratford, where we were 
most cordially received by Dr. Stuart and his handsome wife; his 
brother and niece; Mr. and Mrs. Stuart of Alexandria and their 
friend, Mr. Bayne, and Mr. Stuart, a son of the house. Soon the 
young people were scattered through halls and rooms of the quaint, 
delightful old house — into the room where Lighthorse Harry and 
Robert Edward Lee were born — into the parlor with a quaint little 
}>iano which came from Leipsic, and which, of course, the merry 
youn(o- people Avoke into life to the tune of merry two-steps ; 
into the handsome wainscoted hall, where lips were drawn into 
puckers to whistle a waltz that ea'ch might say in years to come, 
"I have danced in Stratford Hall." Then out to the brick stables, 
with stalls for hundred horses ; then, as the evening shadows fell, 
across the 'fine garden, down a narrow path through the twilight of 
the woods to the Lee vaults. These unfortunately have sunken, 
only one remaining, into which one adventurous spirit stepped. 

Of the kindly hospitality and courtesy of Dr. Stuart, his wife 
and friends, we v/ill long retain most delightful recollections. 

Another drive of fourteen miles brought us back to Leedstown, 
where the good steamer Lancaster lay. We were soon aboard, se- 
cured staterooms, and slept sweetly after a day of unalloyed 

When we go again, go with us. l\rr. Editor. — Correspondent 
Tidewater Democrat. 




Lee in Bronze. 
Unveiling of the Lee Monument in Richmond May 21), 1892. 

There he stood in bronze, our hero, 

'Neath the blue Virginian sky, 
Gazing o'er the many thousands, 

With a calm and tranquil eye. 
On his war horse, proud and stately, 

God-like, in his kingly pose. 
Sat he, calmly and unshaken, 

As a mighty sound uprose. 

Hark ! that sound was like the roarings 

Of some fast approaching storm : 
Cheer on cheer came fast outpouring, 

Ninety thousand hearts were warm. 
Ah ! it seemed the very heaven 

Had been rent in that wild roar ; 
That the grave, our Lee had given. 

To review his troops once more. 

War-scarred veterans, old and hoary. 

Wept like babes, that form to see ; 
While they told anew the story 

Of the deathless fame of Lee : 
How he turned him in the hour, 

When by putting forth his hand. 
He could grasp all wealth or power, 

Or ambition could command. 

When he heard his people call him, 

How he turned to share their woes, 
And through weary years of sorrow, 

Kept at bay their miglity foes. 
And he bore defeat so nobly, 

That some day, the world will see. 
That the grandest name in story. 

Is the name of Robert Lee. 

There he'll stand, in bronze, our leader, 

'Neath the blue Virginian sky ; 
And his fame will still grow greater. 

As the years glide swiftly by. 


On his war horse, proud and stately, 

He will watch through coming time, 

O'er the hopes that sadly perished — 
In his majesty sublime. 

— C. Conway Baker_, of Westmoreland Co., Va., in Baltimore Sun. 

Hail ! Westmoreland. 

Oh, a fertile land and fair 

Is Old Westmoreland, 
Hallowed ground and balmy air 
Has Old AVestmoreland. 
And the pleasant times I've had 
Are but memories sweetly glad 
With an under-tone half sad 
In Old Westmoreland. 

There are fields of waving grain 
In Old Westmoreland, 

And many a fern-lined lane 
In Old Westmoreland. 

And the Pearly-pink wild rose 

In tangled beauty blows. 

Where the fragrant wood-bine grows 
In Old Westmoreland. 

There are tinkling springs and rills 

In Old Westmoreland, 
And balmy pine-clad hills 

In Old Westmoreland. 
There are noble water-ways 
And golden dreamy days 
That fade in silvery haze, 

In Old Westmoreland. 

'Tis a land where great men trod 
In Old Westmoreland, 

'Tis a memory-hallowed sod 
In Old Westmoreland. 

And the gentle shade of Lee, 

It always seems to me. 

The Patron Saint to be, 

Of Old Westmoreland. 


There's a canny fireside cheer, 

In Old Westmoreland, 
Which nowhere doth appear 

But in Westmoreland. 
The shrine there is the home, 
And, I fancy, though they roam, 
Her sons must long to come 

Back to Westmoreland. 

Heaven's canopy of blue 

Shines on Westmoreland, 
And the guardian stars peep through 

At Old Westmoreland. 
Oh, keep the loved ones there. 
Their loyal hearts from care, 
Is mine, an alien's prayer 

For Old Westmoreland. 

— Alys B. Baines, in Times-Dispatch. 

A Message from Westmoreland. 
By Alys B. Baines^ Cliarleston, W. Va. 

There's a tart and winey flavor 

In the morning breeze these days, 
And the gold and reddening forests 

Mark the parting of the ways. 
'Twixt the summer-time and winter, 

And the Harvest-time, the Fall, 
I seem to catch the 'Vander-lust" 

And hear the Home-land's call. 

There are tangled wild-rose hedges there. 

Where honey-suckles twine, 
And shake their crystal chalices 

With fragrance near divine. 
Their incense wafts a message 

To the lonely, hungry heart 
Which says, "Come back among us. 

And in our life take part." 


The zepli3Ts from the South Land 

Caress the pine-crowned knolls, 
And wake sweet ferny odors 

From deep-hid woodland holes. 
And freighted with the fragrance 

Of herb, and balm, and flowers, 
They breathe, "Come back amon-g us, 

Cast in your lot with ours." 

There's a tinkling invitation 

In the message of the bell. 
Saying, "Come to Old Westmoreland, 

Your journey shall be well. 
Come hear our rustic ministers; 

And loiter 'mongst the stones, 
That mark the sacred resting place 

Of many a great man's bones." 

In the silence of blue distances 

That stretch away to sea 
There's a restful, peaceful message 

In their vast immensity. 
I think of our forefathers 

Who trod that hallowed sod, 
Who've long since settled up in full 

Their final bill with God. 

Where the radiant day is dying 

And the sun sets like a flame. 
There's an aftermath of stillness. 

Solemn stillness, none can name. 
Night drops her splendid curtain, 

Diamond-sprinkled, roval blue, 
But still I hear that "Far Cry," 

That says, "I'm calling you." 

Oh, is it any wonder!, 

Tbat I long to go each year, 
To that fair land that lies so far. 

Yet to my heart, so near. 
That there may I, near Nature's heart, 

In solitude sublime. 
Catch the whi.-pers of eternity, 

Across the sea of Time. 

— Greenbrier Independent, 

westmoreland covml, virginia 129 


Secretary Proctor being asked what course the Department 
would pursue in regard to Mr. Davis' death, said: 

"I see no occasion for any action whatever . . . It is better 
to let the matter rest in ohlivious sleep, if it will, and relegate it to 
the past." 

Can'st hold in thine hand the great restless ocean ! 

When winds shriek loudest, can'st still its commotion ? 

Can'st grasp the fork'd lightning or bind it with chain, 

Can'st thou the hoarse roar of the thunder restrain? 

As well migh'st thou try, as to render the name 

Of Davis, our hero, oblivious to fame. 

One heart sways a nation — this fair Southern land — 

To honor, to reverence, the heroic band : 

Jeff Davis, brave Jackson, and Eobert E. Lee, 

Our glorious chieftains, famed eternally. 

— Eleanor Griffith Fairfax, Hague, Va. 

Lee to the Eear. 

Dawn of a pleasant morning in May 
Broke thro' the Wilderness, cool and gray. 
While, perched in the tallest tree-tops, the birds 
Were carolling Mendelssohn's "songs without words." 

Far from the haunts of men remote 
The brook brawled on with a liquid note, 
And nature, all tranquil and lovely, wore 
The smile of spring, as in Eden of yore. 

Little by little, as daylight increased. 
And deepened the roseate flush in the East — 
Little by little did morning reveal 
Two long, glittering lines of steel! 

Where two hundred thousand bayonets gleam, 
Tipped with the light of the earliest beam ; 
And faces are sullen and grim to see 
In the hostile armies of Grant and Lee. 

All of a sudden, ere rose the sun. 
Pealed on the silence the opening gun — 
A little white puff of smoke there came. 
And anon the vallev was wreathed in flame. 


Down on the left of the rebel lines, 

Wliere a breastwork stands in a copse of pines, 

Before the rebels their ranks can form, 

The Yankees have carried the place by storm. 

Stars and stripes o'er the salient wave. 

Where many a hero has found a grave, 

And the gallant Confederates strive in vain 

The ground they have drenched with their blood to regain. 

Yet louder the thunder of battle roared — 
Yet a deadlier fire on their columns poured — 
Slaughter, infernal, rode with Despair, 
Furies twain, through the smoky air. 

Not far off in the saddle there sat 
A grey-bearded man with black slouch hat; 
Not much moved by the fire was he — 
Calm and resolute Eobert Lee. 

Quick and watchful, he kept his eye 
On two bold rebel brigades close by — 
Eeserves that were standing (and dying) at ease 
Where the tempest of wrath toppled over the trees. 

For still with their loud, bull dog bay 
The Yankee batteries blazed away. 
And with every murderous second that sped 
A dozen brave fellows, alas ! fell dead. 

The grand old beard rode to the space 

Where Death and his victims stood face to face. 

And silently waves his old slouch hat — 

A world of meaning there was in that! 

"Follow me ! Steady ! We'll save the day ! 
This was what he seemed to say; 
And to the light of his glorious eye 
The bold brigades thus made the reply : 

"We'll go forward, but you must go back," 
And they moved not an inch in the perilous track. 
"Go to the rear, and we'll give them a rout," 
Then the sound of the battle was lost in their shout. 

Turning his bridle, Eobert Lee 
Eode to the rear. Like the waves of the sea 
Bursting the dykes in their overflow, 
Madly his veterans dashed on the foe; 




And biU'kwaid in terror that foe was driven, 
Their banners rent and their eoliunns riven 
Wherever the tide of battle rolled, 
Over the Wilderness, wood, and wold. 

Sunset out of a crimson sky, 
Streamed o'er a field of a ruddier dye. 
And the brook ran on with a purple stain 
From the blood of ten thousand foemen slain. 

Seasons have passed since that day and year, 
Again o'er the pebbles the brook runs clear, 
And the field in a richer green is drest 
Where the dead of the terrible conflict rest. 

Hushed is the roll of the rebel drum; 

The sabres are sheathed, and the cannon are dumb; 

And Fate, with pitiless hand, has furled 

The flag that once challenged the gaze of the world. 

But the fame of the Wilderness fight abides, 
And down into the history grandly rides. 
Calm and unmoved, as in battle he sat, 
The grey-bearded man in the black slouch hat. 

— John R. Thompson. 


Westmoreland Is a Classic Spot, and Nature Has 
Lavished Her Gifts. 

Her People Must Feel That After All "Honest Blood is Loyal 
Blood, and Manhood is the Only Patent of Nobility." 
\V estmorcland and Virginia Cannot he the Greatest Unless 
Their Men and Women are Good and Honest and the Men 

This short, imperfect story, has been told and is now ended of 
Westmoreland as the most classic spot on the face of the earth ; yes, 
a **good land," too — "a land of wheat and barley, and vines and 
fig trees and pomegranates; a land of olive trees and honey; a land 
wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness." Virginia in her 
civilization — the old and the new — stands for the best traditions in 
the Union of the States of this great Republic because her past and 
present are glorious — a blessed heritage. She, too, is "a land of 
brooks of water, of fountains and springs, flowing forth in valleys 
and hills — a land where stones are iron and out of whose hills thou 
mayest dig copper — where 'the oceans send their mists into the 
mountains, and the streams descend into the valleys' — a land that 
reacheth ajar, a place of broad rivers and streams — the Paradise 
through which these rivers flow, and the harvest field is ready." 
But all this does not after all, dear friends, make the people of 
Westmoreland and Virginia the greatest, unless their men and 
women are good ancl honest, and the men manly. 

"Beware lest when thou hast eaten and art full, thou forget the 
Lord thy God.*' 

At the Conference of Governors and their advisors in the White 
House, Washington, D. C, May 13-15, 1908, the President, Vice- 
President, Cabinet, Supreme Court, Congress, organizations and 
their representatives. Inland Waterways Commission and general 
guests, perhaps the most notable and distinguished body ever as- 
sembled on the continent, Governor Folk of Missouri, said : 

"The people of the United States, whether from North, East, 
South, or West, are alike. The good men and women are the same 
everywhere, and the bad people are alike wherever they may be 
found. In all of the American States honest blood is loyal blood, 
and manhood is the only patent of nobility. (Applause.) 

'^'It does not matter so much where a man is from and what 
that man is. In the language of Kipling: 


"'There is neither East nor West — 
Border, nor breed, nor birth — 
When two strong men stand face to face, 

Thongh they come from the ends of the earth." 

May all of us be able to say forever, "So they helped every one 
his neighbor and every one said to his brother, "Be of good cour- 
age." So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that 
smoteth with the hammer him that smote the anvil. "Bear ye one 
another's burdens." 

At the opening of the session of the Conference Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, chaplain of the United States Senate, being called 
on, invoked the benediction in these words : 

"The Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of 
brooks of water, of fountains and springs, flowing forth in valleys 
and hills; a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig trees and 
pomegranates; a land of olive trees and honey; a land wherein 
thou shalt eat bread without scarceness. Thou shalt not lack any- 
thing in it — a land where stones are iron and out of whose hills 
thou mayest dig copper. 

"Beware lest when thou hast eaten and art full, thou forget the 
Lord thy God, 

"Thine eyes shall behold a land that reacheth ajar, a place of 
broad rivers and streams. Yea, thy children shall possess the 
nations and make the desolate spots to be inhabited. 

"So they helped every one his neighbor and every one said to 
his brother, 'Be of good courage.' So the carpenter encouraged the 
goldsmith, and he that smoteth with the hammer him that smote 
the anvil. 'Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of 

"Let us pray. 

"Father, for this we have come together. Thou hast made for 
us the Paradise through which these rivers flow. Now give us the 
strength of Thy Holy Spirit that we may go into this garden of 
Thine and bring forth fruit in Thy service. Thou hast revealed 
these to us to use under Thy guidance. We are children of the 
living God, alive with Thy life, inspired with Thy Holy Spirit. 
The harvest field is ready, and Thou art pleased to send us into the 
harvest. Be with us now in our assemblage. Thy servants have 
come from the North and from the South, from the East and from 
the West. It is our God's land. Thy oceans send their mists into 
our mountains. Thy streams descend into our valleys, and Thou 
hast chosen us that we may be now the ministers of Thy will and 
enter into that harvest field. 


"Bless us now in to-day's service and those that are to follow, 
and may Thy servants return to their homes alive in that light, 
clad in the Holy Spirit, willing to enter into Thy work, and go 
about our Father's business. 

"Join me audibly in the Lord's Prayer. 

''Our Father who art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy 
Kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven. 
Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses as 
we forgive those who trespass against us. Lead us not into tempta- 
tion but deliver us from evil, for Thine is the Kingdom and the 
power and the glory, forever. Amen." 


CopLE. — This should correctly be written Copple. The word is 
common in Cornwall and in the mining counties of England, and 
means a vessel used in refining metals. It was common three hun- 
dred years ago to name taverns after instruments, as, the "Mortar 
and Pestle," the "Bell," etc. But I know of no place in England 
so called. If there were any mines in Westmoreland, the title 
would be appropriate enough. 

Westmoreland. — This county was created between the years 
1648 and 1653, near a century before any of its Kevolutionary men 
were born; so the Northern writer cannot say properly that it was 
so called from its having produced so many great men in Virginia. 
The true meaning of Moreland is "greater land," from the com- 
parative "more," which is used in the sense of great by Gower, 
Chaucer, and even as late as Shakespeare, who says in "King John," 
Act II, 5th scene, "a more requital." But, if moreland is derived 
from the Celtic word "more," then moreland signifies great land, 
or high land; as, Maccullum More is the Great Maccullum. "Gil- 
more" means the henchman of the more or great man. The name 
of Westmoreland was given originally without doubt to a scene of 
high land or a great stretch of land of some kind, and never had 
allusion to the men who were born or died in any place so called. 

Hugh Blair Grigsby. 

Cople Parish derived its name from Cople in Bedfordshire, 
England, the residence of the Spencer family, a distinguished 
member of which, Colonel Nicholas Spencer, resided in Westmorc 
land at the era of its settlement. He became Secretary of Vir- 
ginia, and acting Governor in 1683. 

George Wm. Beale. 

There is a Virginia of the past resplendent with the heroic 
achievements of a great and glorious people; there is a Virginia 
of the present crowned with possibilities that can surpass the splen- 
dors of the proud past and make all that has gone before in her 
history, but the prelude to a greater destiny. No State in this 


Union has richer or more varied resources than Virginia. — Inau- 
gural Address of Governor Claude A. Swanson before the Legisla- 
ture, Februay 1, 1906. 

"Sirs, in conclusion, while we survey with pride Virginia's 
superb past, let us face the future with hope and confidence. 
Never were the skies of Virginia illumined with brighter prospects. 
Every section of the State is thrilling with a marvellous industrial 
development blessed with an amazing increase of wealth. In every 
direction, Virginia is making a rapid and permanent advance. The 
future beckons her to a higher, nobler destiny. Chastened by mis- 
fortune, made patient by long suffering, brave by burdens borne 
and overcome, stirred by the possibilities of an industrial develop- 
ment and wealth almost unspeakable, cheering to a passion the 
teachings of her illustrious dead from Washington to Lee, Vir- 
ginia presents a combination of strength and sentiment destined to 
make her again the wise leader in this nation of political thought 
and national achievement. Young men of Virginia, the clock of 
opportunity strikes our hour of work and responsibility. Let us, 
animated by a patriotism that is national, stirred by the possibili- 
ties of our State, which point to a greater future, resolve to an- 
swer all demands made upon us by our beloved State and common 
country, and to aid this glorious Commonwealth and this mighty 
Eepublic to advance along the pathway of justice, liberty and pro- 
gress." — Address of Governor Stvanson, "Virginia Day" at James- 
town Exposition, June 12, 1907. 


By Miss M. E. Hungerford (nom de plume, "Shirley".) 

Although Leedstown of to-day occupies the smallest area, and 
perhaps has the least population of all the villages of Westmore- 
land county, it can boast of an interesting and historic past. 
Westmoreland has been called the "Athens of Virginia." Some 
of the most renowned men of the country have been born within her 
borders. It is one of the oldest settled counties in the State, and 
in colonial days it was the home of wealth and influence, the immi- 
grants to the county from England comprising many of the rich 
and aristocratic families of the Old Country. 

In 1667, or thereabouts, John Washington (the grandfather 


of the illustrious George) and others made locations on the lands 
assigned to the EappahannO'cks and to their allies and brothers. 
the Nanzaticoes, along the Rappahannock River. 

We can imagine the effect the appearance of the white settlers 
had upon them, for they had roamed and hunted the forest at will, 
paddled their birch-bark canoes on the "Rapid" river, catching 
fish of all kinds, or winding in and out of the openings of the 
acres of "Marsh," extending from within a stone's throw of where 
Leedstown now stands, to the shore on the Essex side, trapping 
amphibious animals, with which it teemed, using their flesh and 
fur for food and clothing. How picturesque their wigwams must 
have appeared, grouped together against the background of the 
primeval forest, decorated with the trophies of the chase; while 
the squaws sat around in Indian fashion, after securing their 
papooses to the wigAvams above the "danger line," and amused 
themselves with bead and basket work ! Beads, arrow heads, 
stone axes, etc., are all still thrown up by the plough within a few 
yards of Leedstown. I have a handfnl of various kinds of beads 
before me, picked up near the village in 1909. One of the axes, a 
fine specimen, is now serving as a door-guard in one of the homes 
near by. 

Not many years after the English settlers came to this part of 
Virginia, vessels and packets sailed down the Rappahannock, 
through a portion of the Chesapeake Bay and crossed the broad 
Atlantic, direct to Liverpool, laden with tobacco; and after many 
weeks, sometimes month's, returned wiith necessaries, and even 
luxuries, for the English in their new homes. 

This traffic was kept up for years, and resumed after the War 
of 1812-14, as following extract from an old letter shows: "Re- 
ceived advices from Fredericksburg saying, 'At this time, there is 
not a corn purchaser in town — packets are expected from Europe 
shortly which would decide the probable price of grain, when ship- 
ment would be made and of course, purchasers would then be in 
the market.' " 

Leedstown was laid out on the same day as Philadelphia, in the 
year 1683, and on a large and definite "plan". The dwellings 
were commodious and comfortable — built of the best timber from 
the primeval forest. English brick, bought as ballast, were used 
for chimneys and foundations. The yards and gardens contained 
acres and. as time wore on, rare and beautiful exotics were the 
pride of the owners. A tavern, or ordinary, was built of brick, a 
portion of the walls were standing as late as 1861. A short dis- 
tance to the west an Episcopal church was erected. As Pope's 


Creek was called the "Central Parish Church," we may suppose 
that it was so called because it was equi-distant between Leedstown 
and Church Point, on the Potomac. The outline of a brick foun- 
dation at the latter place may still be traced, though now under 
water. Those who drove to the church at Leedstown in carriages 
or gigs, or who rode on horseback, were followed by their servants 
carrying their Prayer Book (of which I have a copy) measuring 
18x10 inches, at least two inches thick, and containing the service 
of the Episcopal Church for all occasions, and the Book of Psalms. 
We have no record of the rector or rectors, though it is not im- 
probable "Parson Campbell" officiated here also. The following 
names are given as member- of the vestry after 1780 : 

Francis Thornton, Lawrence Washington, 

John Washington, Robert Washingion, 

Thomas Pratt, John T. Washington, 

Samuel Washington, Henry T. Washington. 

There is no trace of the church above ground, but by digging 
a foot or two below the surface, portions of the brick foundation 
may be found. When tlife structure became a mass of ruins, 
iwenty-iiive flag-stones, 16x16 inches were removed from the floor 
of the vestibule, and are now guarding the entrance to one of the 
hospitable homes on the "Eidge". It is rumored arrangements 
are being made to have them incorporated in the Cathedral of Sts. 
Peter and Paul at Mt. St. Albans, Washington, D. C. 

"As Boston was the Northern, so Leedstown was the Southern 
Cradle of American Independence," "for ten years previous to the 
Declaration of Independence Thomas L. Lee, of Stafford, re- 
quested his brother, R. H. Lee, of Chantilly," to meet him, and a 
number of others, at Leedstown, to a conference to protest against 
the Stamp Act. One hundred and fifteen fearless men subscribed 
to a paper which said: "We bind ourselves to each other, to God, 
and to our country by the firmest ties that religion and virtue can 
frame, most sacredly and punctually to stand by and, with our lives, 
and our fortunes, to support, maintain and defend each other in 
the observance and execution of several articles," among which in 
part is this : "At every hazard, and paying no regard to danger or 
to death, we will exert every faculty to prevent the execution of 
said Stamp Act in any instance whatsoever in this Colony." This 
meeting took place on the 27th of February, 1766, and was one 
of the first public meetings, in behalf of American rights, as en- 
dangered by the famous Stamp Act, within the thirteen ancient 
Colonies, and the agreement and protest which were then adopted, 


dearly set forth the great issue involved in the dispute with the 
"Mother Country." 

"This issue was never afterwards more plainly or boldly de- 
clared than in this instrument." 

"This action, taken ten years before the Eevolution began, 
seems to have been a signal gun of warning and preparation whose 
clear, reverberating echoes heralded the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and was a prelude to all the patriotic guns from Lexington 
to Yorktown." 

The colonists living at Leedstown and vicinity rallied to a 
man to fight the invading foe; many of those who were children 
when the war began were from sixteen to twenty before it closed. 
I know of two instances where youths entered at sixteen — one be- 
came a lieutenant and the other a captain at twenty. One was 
wounded at Morris' Heights, ten miles above ISTew York City, but 
returned safely and lived at Leedstown until May, 1803; the other 
marched from Leedstown to the "Siege of York" ; was present at 
the surrender, after which he and his command were formally 
discharged and returned to their respective homes at Leedstown. 
He immediately raised a company of grenadiers, which was at- 
tached to the Westmoreland militia. This brave man took an 
active part in the War of 1812-14; represented his county several 
sessions in the Virginia Legislature, after which he w^as a member 
of Congress until 1817. 

After the War of the Eevolution and the War of 1812-14 wilh 
Great Britain were over, many of those who went from Leedstown 
and were fortunate enough to return to their homes, enlarged 
their borders by extending their estates up to. and in many cases, 
over the "Ridge" towards the Potomac Eiver, as extract from a 
letter written January 15, 1837. will show: "Having been unusu- 
ally late in securing my crop of corn this winter, my whole time, 
when able to ride, has been devoted to that business; one day on 
the Eappahannock 'flats,' and the next on the Potomac." Others 
came in and bought houses (many of which were becoming dilapi- 
dated) and lands along the banks of the Rappahannock, about 
Leedstown, razing the houses and extending their fields towards 
the river, until there is little more than a roadway and a few small 
dwellings above high water mark. 

It is hard to believe the quiet little village w^as ever the ren- 
dezvous for huntsmen, with their packs of hounds, and others who 
engaged in games, bets, etc., etc. I copy the following found in 
an ofd book, dated 1749: 

"At leedstown in Virginia on Wednesday 17th day of Sep- 


tember, a race to be run for a purse of £35. and on the 18th, a 
plate for one of a £100 value." 

"Leedstown, April 3rd 1820, Icicles 18 in. long, south side of 
the house at 12 o'clock and snow three inches deep on the even- 
ing of the 2nd." Signed by four prominent men. 

Extract from a letter written from Leedstown in March, 1813 : 

"Drove to your farm yesterday found the servants well — the 
crops well housed — but am sorry to inform you that the wolves 
are playing havoc with your sheep." 

Also the following on a more exciting subject : 

"Tine Farm,' near Leedstown, February 21st, 1814. We are 
hourly expecting to hear that our friends ( ?) the British, are in 
the river. We calculate on warm work when warm weather sets 
in. I hope, meet them when we may, that our arms may be reno- 
vated and our hearts steeled — to give them 'Old Virginia Play.' " 

In addition to the social gatherings in their own homes, din- 
ners, card parties, etc., they enjoyed political meetings, barbacues 
(the old sycamores are still standing under which they were held) 
and military drills. In a letter dated July 13, 1844, the writer 

"We had on the fourth quite a gala day at old Leeds. The 
Declaration of Independence was read by J. Tayloe Washington 
and a very appropriate oration was delivered by Major Henry T. 
Gamett. The feast was given by the 'Eifle Blues,' Thos. Garnett 
captain, Jno. W. Hungerford, Lieutenant, a Volunteer Company 
of the neighborhood, handsomely uniformed and well-drilled ; Har- 
vey's Co. the 'Washington Guards,' from the Court House was in- 
vited to participate. The two made one very respectable Com- 
pany and present quite an interesting spectacle. After going 
through many Military evolutions in fine style, a National Salute 
of 13 guns was fired from a six-pounder — then the dinner and 
after that, the wine and the toasts, the songs and the anecdotes, 
closed the ceremonies of the day." 

Steamboats have been plying between Baltimore and Fred- 
ericksburg for more than seventy-five years. The first to make 
the trip was the Mary Washington, a very comfortable boat in her 
time, but nothing to compare in size and appointments to those of 
the Weems Line of to-day. The Cambridge, later on the line, was 
burned to the water's edge below Tappahannock. With the steam- 
ers to Baltimore and to Fredericksburg and a direct line to Eich- 
mond, by carriage, over the corduroy road across the "Marsh," 
the citizens of Leedstown felt themselves in close touch with at 
least three cities of the outside world. 

Let us go back to the "Ridge," overlooking Leedstown at a dis- 


tance of two miles, and name the former owners of the hospitable 
homes that crown the highest point between the Eappahannock 
and Potomac Eivers. There were the Garnetts, the Jetts, the 
Hungerfords, the Mastins, the Taylors, and the Turners. Of all 
of these, there is now but one occupied by descendants. Many 
have died and their representatives are scattered to the four quar- 
ters of the globe. 

Within a mile of Leedstown we shall pause a moment by a 
graveyard with a substantial enclosure, on the lock of which is 
engraved the name of the family whose members are interred 
within. From having been the possessors of broad acres for miles 
around this historic spot, "God's Acre'' alone is theirs. The in- 
scriptions on two of the slabs are dated 1691. Besides these we 
find lying here two officers of the Continental line, Army of the 
Eevolution, designated by D. A, R. markers placed by a grand- 
daughter; four officers of the War of 1812-14, and one gallant 
cavalry otlicer, who was killed leading a charge in the War of 
1861-'5. In addition there is an alumnus of the University of Vir- 
ginia, who, had he lived, would have added lustre to the family 
name, for the inscription says of him: "He was a devoted son and 
brother, a firm friend, loyal to Virginia and a Champion of States' 
Eights." "Prolcge et grege." These are some of the men de- 
scended from the patriotic citizens of Leedstown, and with an 
extract from a letter from one brother to another, now lying with- 
in the enclosure, you will agree with me that Leedstown not only 
produced public-spirited men, but prophets: , 

^''TwiFORD/ March 5th, 1838. 

"I perceive the Sub. Treasury Bill still lingers in the Senate 
and I sincerely hope that there it may linger until it falls to 
rise no more. I wish its annihilation to be perfect and complete 
from the bottom of my soul. I wish it first, for the good of my 
country, and next, as a means of sustaining that party in power 
to which I belong. Paradoxical as it may seem, it is never-the-less 
true, that on its defeat, depends the issue of the continuance or 
non-continuance of the Eepublican party in power. I hesitate 
not a moment to say, that in my very humble opinion, if the 
administration is indulged in its visionary and Utopian scheme so 
far as to obtain the enactment of that law, that its fate is sealed; 
it will in the next Congress be without support in either House 
and impotent to do good in every respect. As a warm friend of 
Mr. Van Buren, I hope for his own good, as well as that of our 
common country, he may fail — yes, signally fail in this his weak — 
3'ea, detestable policy. 


"If by the rash experiment sought to be made on the settled 
policy of the countr}', a change in rulers -shall take place, Mr. 
Clay no doubt will be at the head. Then look for high tariffs, in- 
ternal improvements without limit, the resurrection of the odious 
U. S. Bank and last, though not least, the triumph of the abolition- 
ists; and lastly, in the back ground, I behold a dark — a growing 
shadow stalking abroad — anon, assuming the form and shape of 
substance — and advocating a policy in regard to abolition which 
can only be dispelled by opposing battlements and bristling bayo- 
nets — "The shrill trumpet and the cannons roar" and "all the cir- 
cumstance of glorious war" — State against State, brother against 
brother. All this and more me thinks I see in the far distance. 
May heaven deign to avert such a calamity from our beloved Coun- 
try ! I know you differ with me, and I regret it much, but time, 
the discloser of the wisdom or folly of human actions, will test the 
correctness of our judgments.'*' 

Your affectionate brother, 

J. W. H. 

The First Mention of Westmoreland in Its History. 

It is ordered by this present Grand Assembly that the bounds 
of the County of Westmoreland be as followeth (vizt) ifrom Ma- 
choactoke river where Mr. Cole lives ; And so vpwards to the ffalls 
of the great river of Pawtomake above the Necostins towne. — 
(Eand. MS.) Henning's Statutes at Large, Vol. I., p. 381. July, 
1653, 4th of the Commonwealth. 

Note by same : This is the first time the County of Westmore- 
land has been mentioned. 

Who Was Governor at That Time. 

Sir William Berkley, after that, continued Governor till the 
spring of 1652, and then Eichard Bennett, Esq., was Governor. 
Richard Bennett continued till 1655, and then Edward Digges, 
Esq., was made Governor. — Idem, p. 5. 

What Thackeray Said of Washington. 

In The Virginians, by Thackeray, the narrative and plot of 
the preparations for blood and the duel between the Warrington 
twin brothers and George Washington, a supposed lover of Lady 
Eachel Warrington of Castlewood, their mother and a step father 


in prospect, which duel was averted, is thrilling. And the tribute 
and apostrophe to Washington is one of the most brilliant pas- 
sages ever paid him by any author: 

"It was strange that in a savage forest of Pennsylvania, a 
young Virginian officer should fire a shot, and waken up a war 
which was to last for sixty years; which was to cover his own 
country, and pass into Europe, to cost France her American colo- 
nies, to sever ours from us, and create the great Western republic; 
to wage over the old world when extinguished in the new; and, of 
all the myriads engaged in the vast contest to leave the prize of 
the greatest fame with him who struck the first blow." 

From Neiv York Sun, August 31, 1911: 

The Prosperous South. 

Its Remarkable Industrial and Agricultural Development. 
To the Editor of The Sun: 

Sir, — Though much has been published about the material de- 
velopment of the Southern States, there are yet many who do noi 
fully understand how great has been the industrial and agricul- 
tural progress of that section in the last ten years. 

At the present time the sixteen Southern States, Missouri and 
Oklahoma included, have $3,000,000,000 capital invested in manu- 
facturing, compared with a total of $2,790,000,000 for the entire 
country in 1880. 

The value of the agricultural output of these States was last 
year $2,975,000,000, against a total value of the farm crops of the 
United States of $2,460,000,000 in 1890. 

In 1900 the total value of the farm property in these States 
was $3,233,000,000, whereas the census figures recently issued 
show that in 1909 the value of farm property in these States was 
$7,293,000,000, a gain of over $4:,000,000;000 in that decade. 
This is four times as great as the aggregate national banking capi- 
tal of the United States. 

'These fi,^res indicate something of the marvelous change 
which has come about in the agricultural interests of the South, 
This gain of $4,000,000,000 or 125 per cent., showed an increase 
in the rate of agricultural wealth seven times as great as the rate 
of increase in population. 

To a considerable extent this wonderful change is due to the 
higher prices of cotton in the last ten years, but this is not by any 
means the only reason. Notwithstanding the better prices of cot- 


ton of late years, Southern farmers are giving more and more at- 
tention to diversified agriculture, and in this respect are return- 
ing to the system that prevailed before 1860, when the production 
of grain and live stock was relatively far greater in proportion to 
population than it is to-day even after all the advance of the last 
ten years. 

The cotton crop of 1898-99 of 11,274,000 bales was worth, seed 
included, about $330,000,000. The crop of 1909-10 of about 
11,500,000 bales was worth to Southern farmers $963,000,000. 
The difference strikingly illustrates the importance to the South 
of good prices for cotton as compared with the starvation 'figures 
of the low price period from 1893 to 1901. 

The Southern farmer is no longer compelled to concentrate 
on cotton growing; he finds in diversified agriculture, due to the 
development in part of the home market through the growth of 
itianufacturing interests and cities and to the enormous increase 
in the demand from the North and West for early fruits and vege- 
tables, such profitable opportunities that it may safely be said this 
section will not for many years, if ever, except perhaps in an occa- 
sional year of unusually favorable crop conditions, increase its pro- 
duction of cotton to such an extent as to injure its agricultural 
prosperity by bringing an era of low prices. 

Indicative of the increasing prosperity of the farmers of the 
South during this ten year period was the advance in the. value of 
farm buildings from $885,000,000 to $1,672,000,000, a' gain of 
nearly $800,000,000. 

Notwithstanding the great increase in the value of the South's 
agricultural output, the development of its industrial and mining 
interests has been so great that the value of the output of its mines 
and its factories now largely exceeds the value of the output of 
its farms. 

In the last fiscal year 47 per cent, of the total exports of the 
United States originated in the South, and 36.4 per cent, passed 
through Southern ports. In that year the value of the foreign 
exports from Galveston was twice as great as the total value of the 
combined exports from all the ports of the Pacific coast of the 
United States. The value of the foreign exports from Galveston 
exceeded by $38,389,552 the combined foreign exports trade of San 
Francisco, Boston, and Philadelphia. 

Facts such as these could be given without end as illustrations 
of the substantial development in manufactures, in agriculture and 
in foreign commerce which is seen throughout the whole South. 
And yet these facts do not tell the whole story. This increasing 


wealth of the South is finding an expression in every line of human 
activity. It is seen in the building of towns and cities, in the con- 
struction of good roads, in municipal improvements, in the build- 
ing of schools, churches and more costly dwellings. 

Last year the South expended upon the maintenance of public 
schools considerably over $50,000,000, or more than twice as much 
as the United States expended upon public education in 1860. 

These facts, however, are more interesting as suggestive of 
what is yet to be accomplished in the upbuilding of the South 
than of what has already been achieved. This section, now begin- 
ning to accumulate capital and to be recognized by the investors 
of other sections as the coming center of American development, 
should make far greater progress in the next ten years than it has 
made in the last twenty. Its railroads will unquestionably be 
taxed to their utmost capacity to keep up with the increasing trade 
of the South. Its shipping facilities must be greatly expanded in 
order to take care of the rapid growth of its commerce, foreign and 

The development of its iron and steel interests will be on a far 
larger scale in the future than in the past. The recent Congres- 
bional investigation, which is bringing conspicuously to the front 
the fact that- the Steel Corporation owns only about 20 per cent, 
of the available ores of the South instead of a monopoly as some 
had supposed, will result in turning capital into the utilization 
of the vast ore resources of this section. With the proximity of 
coking coal and iron ores which cannot be duplicated anywhere 
else in America, it is absolutely certain that the iron and steel in- 
terests of this section will grow with great rapidity as the increas- 
ing requirements of the South and of foreign countries, which can 
be reached from the South furnish an ever widening market for 
the steel products of this section. 

With manufacturing 'capital (exceeding that of the United 
States in 1880, with an agricultural output exceeding in value by 
half a billion dollars the value of the crops of the United States 
in 1890, with an increase in ten years in agricultural wealth four 
times as great as the present national banking capital of the United 
States, surely the South is now in a position to begin its real up- 
building. What it has accomplished is merely the getting of its 
tools together to make ready for the activities upon which it is 
now preparing to enter. 

EiCHARD H. Edmonds, 
Editor Manufacturers' Record. 

Baltimore. Md., Augu-H 30th. 


A Wreath on Lee's Monument. 

A splendid and graceful tribute was paid 5^esterday to genius 
and virtue as embodied in the greatest of all A^irginians, when 
the famed Fifth Eegiment, of Maryland, formed about the statue 
af Lee and presented arms, while its colonel, with head uncovered, 
laid a wreath at the base of the monument. 

Virginia has manv titles to glory; but one of the most endur- 
ing will be the fact that she gave birth to this illustrious soldier 
whose genius and courage combined with his lofty character as a 
man to make him the very fruit and flower of his race. 

His fame grows greater as the years pass by, and will not be 
dimmed by the centuries to come. 

Throughout future ages brave men and strong men and great 
men will continue to pay tributes of respect to this man who was 
brave, strong and great. — Edmund Pendleton, Editor, in News- 
Leader, October 13, 1911. 

Woman — Then and Now. 

Then. — Not so much on the field of battle wer& the victories 
of the Revolution, but rather at the fireside where the mother 
trained her sons for deeds of valor and patriotism. 

It has been said of the work of the women aiding the Conti- 
nental Army : "The women of Massachusetts have made us a 
nation of coffee drinkers because they would not serve English 
tea to American soldiers." This was the origin of that distinctive 
class of "Tea party" in our vernacular dialect. 

Now. — In the great work of reconciliation and peace between 
the sections; in the union of the Blue and Gray in perpetuation 
of the era of good feeling and fellowship in the great work of 
general amnesty to rehabilitate a common country under a common 
flag and a common destiny, recently it has been the custom of the 
Camps and Army Posts of Northern veterans to invite the South- 
ern Camps and Confederate Associations North to the banci.uet 
table of a common hospitality and God-given patriotism. 

Eecently one of these reunions took place at the North, and a 
sour, censorious, bitter old New England spinster became offended 
and inflamed, and sent in a vicious protest to the chairman of the 
Committee of Invitation — who was Commander of the Camp — 
against this mixing up and meeting of Southern veterans. The 
Commander read it. and was stung and stirred by the tone and 

'^/-'^u.n {7J^. 



language used. He turned to his wife and said: "Wife, how shall 
I answer this ?" The wife replied : "Husband, I reckon you know 
how to reply to it." So the next morning the Commander sent 
this reply: "Dear Miss, there are Confederate soldiers in Heaven, 
If you do not wish to meet them and to avoid them go to hell." 
These last words are not profane, and if the most fastidious think 
so, it can be truly said it is the least profane way in which they 
were ever used, and oh ! the genuine satisfaction in uttering them. 
The true New England woman — gentlewoman — docs not feel like 
this old bitter spinster. 

Whether I am in a banquet hall or at a Confederate Keunion, 
I never forget the women, and I never fail to refer to the artless 
little Alabama girl. It is a part of my religion to do so. The 
artless little Alabama girl who was guiding General Forrest along 
a dangerous path, when the enemy fired a volley upon him, and 
who instinctively spread her skirts and cried : "Get behind me !" 
had a spirit as high as that which filled the bosom of Joan of Arc 
or Charlotte Corday. God bless her — the queen of a Southern 

Major Daniel, in his oration on General Lee said : "Amongst 
the quiet, nameless workers of the world — in the stubble field and 
by the forge, bending over a sick child's bed or smoothing an out- 
cast's pillow, is many a hero and heroine truer, nobler than those 
over whose brows han^ plumes and laurels." 

"At the bottom of all true heroism is unselfishness. Its crown- 
ing expression is sacrifice. The world is suspicious of vaunted 
heroes. They are so easily manufactured. So many feet are cut 
and trimmed to fit Cinderilla's slippers that we hesitate long be- 
fore we hail the Princess. But when the true hero has come, and 
we know that here he is, in verity. Ah! how the hearts of men 
leap forth to greet him — how worshipfully we welcome God's 
noblest work — the strong, honest, fearless, upright man." Such 
was E. E. Lee. 

It is told that a banquet was given in Tidewater Virginia to 
President Tyler, one of the most eloquent after-dinner speakers 
that the world has known. The President responded in a brilliant 
way — thrilling, but as the time came for the last impromptu toast, 
old Dr. Shultice from the south side of the Eappahannock, State 
Senator, arose and asked to offer the toast: "To the women — God 
bless them, we can not get along with them, and we can not get 
along without them." It captured the assembly as the sprightliest 
gem of the evening. Now the conclusion of the whole matter, told 
in plain, rugged Anglo-Saxon, is, that we are left to but one 


alternative after all, and that one alternative is that we can not 
get along without them. If it was not for woman we would have 
no country to protect us, no church to comfort and save us, and no 
home to shelter us. We would have nothing and be lost. 

God bless the women of Virginia and the women of Westmore- 

Some Will Eival Their Ancient Colonial Grandeur. 

All of us must believe that the progressive men of to-day, rep- 
resentative of the progress and development of the age in which 
we live — men the acknowledged leaders of life and thought of to- 
day — are in truth the founders, makers, and builders of our great 
Eepublic along all lines of human endeavor in the social, indus- 
trial, commercial, and agricultural development of our Common- 

We welcome those who come amongst us with their energy 
and capital to Virginia. We welcome them to Westmoreland. We 
iill rejoice to see them buy and build up the old historic places of 
Westmoreland so they may rival the ancient grandeur of these 
colonial homes of colonial days. I wish I had space to refer to 
all the old colonial homes of Westmoreland with traditions and 
memories, and to the noble race of gentle folks who owned them. 
I feel like I am guilty of sacrilege to leave any unnoticed, but I 
can only refer to those that have passed into new hands, and to 
new comers, who have brought their wealth, energy, culture and 
social refinement with them to live amongst us. The following is 
intended distinctly for the class of new comers and the homes 
they have purchased : 

Hon. John E. Dos Passos, a distinguished and brilliant mem- 
ber of the New York Bar, bought "Sandy Point," the colonial 
plantation and home of Colonel George Eskridge, guardian of Mary 
Ball, the mother of Washington; more recently the home of the late 
Colonel Gordon F. Forbes. He bought also "Hominy Hall." the 
birthplace of Hon. Eichard Henry Lee's first wife. Here, about 
the middle of the last century, lived Colonel James Steptoe, whose 
eldest daughter, by his first marriage, became the wife of Philip 
Ludwell Lee, pf Stratford, and mother of his daughters — Matilda 
and Flora — the noted belles of that famous home of the era of the 
Eevolution; also "Water View," home of the Temple family of the 
last century, and the birthplace of Hon. John Critcher, who made 


himself famous in his debate with Hon. George F. Hoar, of Mas- 
sachusetts, in the Congress of the United States when the latter 
charged the depravity of the Southern slave holder; also "Pecka- 
tone," the early home of the Corbins, Turbervilles, Taliaferros, 
Browns, and Murphys; also "Bonums" and "Springfield," the 
latter formerly the home of General Alexander Parker, a brave 
Revolutionary soldier and important ally of General Wayne in his 
Indian campaign. Under the shores of this estate the naval com- 
bat took place in 1813, in which Midshipman Sigourney, of Boston, 
Mass., lost his life while bravely defending his vessel, the United 
States schooner Asp, against the British. A slab in the Bailey 
burial ground, near Kinsale, marks his grave and commemorates 
this event. All these colonial homes were once owned by people 
of a noble race. 

These lands of Mr. Dos Passos now amount to between 5,000 
and 10,000 acres, covering a water front of some twelve miles on 
the majestic Potomac. He has not only made large investments 
in the purchases of these estates, but has beautified the same by 
roadways, buildings, and cultivation. His investment has added 
a large contribution to labor, taxes, and material wealth, and has 
increased the volume of the same in Westmoreland. They are 
very valuable. 

Robert B. Cason, Esq., a progressive citizen of Cleveland. Ohio, 
has bought "Bushfield," home of John A. Washington, brother of 
General Washington. It is the birthplace of Judge Bushrod Wash- 
ington, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. He is now building in colonial style, and adding the old 
colonial pillars so stately and majestic. It is said that he is much 
interested in the oyster industrv. too. More recentl\ he has pur- 
chased '^Beale's Wliarf" and the '"Walnut Farm" and "Wood Yard," 
in all, making him the owner of much of the most valuable pro- 
perty on Nomini River. 

C. Boyd, Esq., of St. Louis, Mo., another progressive citizen, 
has bought "Wilton." built before the Revolution and still beau- 
tiful and in thorough repair, once illuminated with charm and 
lavish hospitality by Dr. Wat H. Tyler, then James D. Arnest, 
and lastly by the late George F. Brown, and more recently by Mrs. 
Brown, his wife. Mrs. Brown has bought "Spring Grove." the old 
Murphy home, near Mt. Holly, and will reside there. A contem- 
porary says : "Mr. Boyd is a retired business man, and brings with 
him a fnmilv whose refinement and culture make them a distinct 
acquisition to our community." 

Ira Cortright Wetherill, Esq., of Philadelphia. h;is I)ought the 


"Old Glebe." He belongs to a wealthy and prominent family, and 
resides there. He has spent thousands in rehabilitating the house 
and surroundings, and has made it a beautiful and attractive home. 
On the shore of the Lower Machodoc Creek is the "Glebe," long 
the residence of the rectors of Cople Parish during the colonial 
period. Here lived the Roses, Smiths, and Elliotts in this com- 
fortable brick mansion in fine and appropriate keeping with the 
homes of the wealthy parishioners of the community. Of these 
rectors the Eev. Thomas Smith comes down to us in history as a 
remarkable man of those days — a man of great force of character, 
and an ardent and most pronounced patriot. He presided over the 
meeting as Moderator at Westmoreland Courthouse, 22nd June, 
1774; also over the meeting of the Westmoreland Committee of 
Safety, May 23, 1775, at the same place, when the fiery resolu- 
tions, already published in this pamphlet, were passed. Surely he 
was not one of the King's anointed, and no Tory. 

Dr. John Augustine Smith, while his father was rector of 
Nomini and Yeocomico Chur'ehes, was born here. Dr. Smith 
married Lettice, daughter of "Squire" Lee of "Lee Hall," and be- 
came President of William and Mary College in 1815, and subse- 
quently professor in the University of New York. 

Here, too, was the home of that prominent family of Chandler, 
whose members in Maryland, Virginia, Alabama, and Texas, point 
with pride to the traditions and happy memories of the old home. 

How we wish we had space to give graphic sketches and remi- 
niscences of these homesteads and historic homes and famous fam- 
ilies of Westmoreland. The truth is that we have not the space. 

We Avould like to dwell on "Cabin Point" now owned by W. H. 
Calhoun, late of South Carolina, more recently a broker in New 
York — a cultured and refined family — once the property of the 
late Colonel Eobert J. Washington, ex-State Senator from West- 
moreland, a bright and strong man. Sweet memories cluster around 
his name. It was once the residence, too, of Right Rev. John B. 
Newton, Bishop Coadjutor of the Diocese of Virginia. He em- 
bellished, as peer of any, the line of the noble Bishops of Virginia. 

We would like to speak of "King Copsico," once the property 
of the Bernard family, valuable for and rich in agricultural pro- 
ducts; also the residence of Major Albert G. Dade, the efficient 
commissariat of General W. H. F. Lee's cavalry division — an open 
home, kind, hospitable and the prince of caterers in turtle soup. 

Next comes Coles Point — now owned by Hon. William Mayo — 
home of Richard Cole, one of the earliest settlers in Westmoreland, 
who obtained his patent near the mouth of Machodoc Creek in 


1650. Once the residence of the estimable Bowie family, a son of 
whom, Edwin Bowie, still lives in the vicinity — a gallant Con- 
federate soldier, a man of granite character, and fine type of citi- 

Next comes Fauntleroys (properly it belongs to Northumber- 
land), now owned by A. M. Byers, president Farmer's Bank, 
Aledo, Illinois; a fine estate lately owned by the late Rev. W. W. 
Walker, the silver-tongued orator of Virginia; formerly the home 
of George Fairfax Lee, who represented the eldest line of the dis- 
tinguished family, having been the son of George F. Lee, Burgess 
of Westmoreland. George F. L^e was son of Hannah, daughter 
of William Fairfax, and sister to Mrs. Lawrence Washington, the 
first matron of Mount Vernon. 

One more must be mentioned — probably the finest in colonial 
days in all this section. It is Nomony Hall, the home of Coun- 
cillor Carter. The colonial buildings were destroyed by fire more 
ihan a half century ago. A modern building stands near the spot 
of the old mansion. The stately poplars are still there, lining the 
avenue for two centuries. It is the historic home of Thomas M. 
Arnest, Esq., a progressive, strenuous, successful, up-to-date 
farmer, and son of Westmoreland county — a man of great en- 
deavor, who farms and manages intelligently, and husbands well 
his resources. He is one of the builders of his country, and leader 
of life and thought of to-day along agricultural and commercial 
development of his community and State. 

May the prophecy of our venerable Bishop Meade be speedily 
fulfilled. I believe it will be. , 

"Airfield," once the home of Mr. Ballantine. the old Scotch 
merchant, and more recently of the late George W. Murphy, de- 
serves mention, and is full of historic interest. Also "Lee Hall," 
the home of "Squire" Henry Lee, now^ owned by Dr. Walter N. 
Chinn, and "Chantilly," the home of Richard Henry Lee, and 
''Stratford," the birth place of General Robert Edward Lee. As 
to the last three, their history and owners, let the reader consult 
the fine and complete volume. "Lee of Virginia," by Edmund Jen- 
nings Lee, M. D., an accomplished writer, now of Philadelphia, 
a member of the Historical Societies of Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
who has illuminated the Lee family and Westmoreland. "Strat- 
ford" is now the home of Dr. R. H. Stuart, the popular Treasurer 
of Westmoreland caunty and President of the Bank of Montross, 
who always extends a cordial welcome to visitors and shrine seekers. 

In upper Westmoreland is "Chatham." where the old Courthouse 
stood. "The Cottage," the old home of the Maryes. "Claymont" 


(Judge George W. Lewis). ''Campbcllton" (Mr. Lawrence Wash- 
ington, Sr., and more recently Colonel E. J. Washington). "Aud- 
ley" (Judge John Critcher), now owned by Charles lusoo Wil- 
liams, an accomplished artist. "Paynes Point" (the Bartons). 
"Exeter" (Dr. F. D. Wheelwright). '"Walnut Hill" (Charles C. 
Jett). "Cedar Hill" (John T. Mastin). "Bunker Hill," "Mont- 
rose," and "Kiverside" (the Taylors). "Blenheim" (Philip Contee 
Hungerford). "New Blenheim" (Lawrence Washington, Jr.). 
"Wakefield," the birthplace of Washington (John E. Wilson). 
-The birthplace of President Monroe overlooks Monroe Creek, and 
the Potomac River. On this site no house now stands, and is 
marked only by one solitary tree^ There is another old home we 
wish we could locate. It is the Pickett home. The emigrant, 
George Pickett, of France, settled in Westmoreland county. Va., 
and resided there in 1680. He was the father of the William 
Pickett from whom General George E. Pickett was descended. 
William Pickett's daughter, Mary Ann Pickett, married, in 1766, 
Eev. William Marshall (a Baptist preacher), of Westmoreland 
county, uncle of Chief Justice Marshall, and moved to Kentucky. 
(See "Colonial Families of the Southern States of America" by 
Stella Pickett Hardy, published in New York in 1911.) When 
we contemplate the fact tliat General George E. Pickett graduated 
in the United States Military Academy in 1846 in the same class 
with George B. McClellan, Stonewall Jackson, and other famous 
men, and that his name is associated with the most superb feat of 
arms at Gettysburg, and the fame of the great drama, there is a 
thrill of sentiment and pride that the birthplace of the immortal 
Pobert Edward Lee is also the home of the first Pickett as well as 
Marshall. "Roxbury" (Dabney Carr Wirt), now F. W. Alexander, 
attorney-at-law and editor of the Westmoreland Enquirer and 
Colonial Beach Becord. "Ingleside" (formerly Washington Acad- 
emy) (Colonel Henry T. Garnett), now the home of John A. 
Flemer, an accomplished citizen, recently in IT. S. Survey and 
Government employ in Alaska. 

"Twiford" (Colonel John W. Hungerford), now the home of 
David H. Griffith, a model and progressive farmer and citizen ; an 
efficient member of the Board of Supervisors, and president of 
the Potomac and Rappahannock Telephone Company. 

"Wirtland" (Dr. William Wirt), now William D.'Wirt, grand- 
son of William Wirt. Attorney-General United States. A beantiful 
and ideal home, with a charm of the master and mistress who pre- 
side, and one of the finest home schools for girls in the countrv. 

All these, and others, I wish I could mention, have made West- 
moreland famous for hospitality, culture, and social charms. 


John L. Beale (whose nom de plume is "Seldom'^), in the 
Northern Nech News; Dr. George C. Mann, the Montross corre- 
spondent of the same paper; Hon. Thomas Brown (whose nom de 
plume is "Cople"), in the Westmoreland Enquirer and Colonial 
Beach Record; J. C. Ninde, local editor of the same paper, F. W. 
Alexander, its editor ; and Charles Insco Williams, secretary "West- 
moreland Historical Association," "Audley," Oak Grove, West- 
moreland county, Va., lately incorporated, can better write these 
up with interest and a charm. The trenchant pen of Dr. George 
Wm. Beale is always interesting. 

We welcome all who will come among us to restore and rehabili- 
tate these old homes and help make them rival their ancient 


The roses nowhere bloom so white 

As in Virginia; 
The sunshine nowhere shines so bright 

As in Virginia. 
The birds nowhere sing quite so sweet, 
And nowhere hearts so lightly beat, 
For heaven and earth both seem to meet 

Down in Virginia. 


The days are nowhere quite so long 

As in Virginia; 
Nor quite so filled with happy song, 

As in Virginia. 
And when my time has come to die, 
Just take me back and let me lie 
Close where the James goes rolling by, 

Down in Virginia. 


There i? nowhere a land so fair. 

As in Virginia; 
So full of sons"; so free of care, 

As in Virginia. 
And I believe that Happy Land 
The Lord's prepared for mortal man, 
Is built exactly on the plan 

Of Old Virginia. 


"Athens (The) of Virginia,' 9, 119. 

Atwill, Mrs. B. B., Sec'y, 10. 

Atwill, Misses, 10, 

Andrews, E. F., artist, 11. 

American Eagle, 13. 

Atwill, fe^amuel Francis, at New 
Market, 13, 109, 115. 

Alamance (North Carolina), 15. 

American Revolution, 15, 60, 

America, 17. 

Adams, President, 23, 31, 55, 5C, 

American Colonization Society, 26, 
27, 28, 71, 

Aeneas, 38. 

Anchises, 38, 

Achilles, 38, 67, 72, 

Alexanaer, F, \V., 43. 152. 153, 

Ashton, John, 46, 51, 

American Archives, 50, 51, 52, 54. 

Ashton, Burdette, 51. 

Ashton, John, Jr., 51, 

Adams, John, 55, 56, 

Adams, Samuel, 55, 91, 

Asp, U. S'. Schooiier, 90, 149. 

Archer, 57. 

Arthur, King, 57. 

Aristides, 63, 

Athens, Golden Age of, 60, 

Age (The) of Bronze, 64, 

Anti-Slavery Society of Quakers, 64. 

Annals of Augusta County, 66. 

Augusta County, 66. 

Augusta West, 66, 

Alfred the Great, 74. 

Antoninus. Marcus Aiirelius, 78, 

Adams, Col, Chas. Francis, Presi- 
dent Historical Society of Massa- 
chusetts (Address on General 
Lee), 75. 

Athenians, 78. 

Alexandria Gazette. 87. 

Argrle, 114. 

Alfalfa, 18. 

Atlantic City of Washington, 118. 

Arcadia of America, 119. 

Athrns of America, 119. 

Appendix'. 135. 

Arnest. .Tames D.. 149. 

.Mahama Girl. 147. 

Arnest, Thomas M., 151. 
Airfield, 151. 
Audley, 152, 153. 


Burnett, RichartI, 142. 

Ball, Mary, 112, 148, 

Berkley, Sir William, 142, 

Browns, 149, 

Bonums, 149. 

Bailey, 149. 

Beales, 149. 

Boyd, C, 149. 

Brown, Geo, F„ 149. 

Brown, Mrs. Geo. F., 149. 

Beale's Wharf, 149. 

Bernard, 150, 

Bowie, Edwin, 151. 

Byers, A. M., 151. 

Ballantine, Mr,, 151. 

Bartons, 152. 

Bunker's Hill, 152. 

Blenheim, 152. 

Blenheim, New, 152. 

Beale, John L., 153. 

Brown. Hon. Thos., 153. 

Bassett, Geo. W. (owner of Wash- 
ington's Bible) , 9, 

Beale, Rev. Dr. G. W., 10, 14, 35; 
(address), 18, 101. 112, 114, 115. 
135, 153, 

Bonebrake, Mrs, John S,, 11. 

Bryan, Joseph. iS. 

Baker, Miss Lizzie, 13. 

Haker, Hon. C. Conway, 10, 14, 18, 

Baxter. John S.. 14. 

Brent. Prof. Frank P.. 17, 18 (His- 
torical Address). 

British America. 18, 32, 

Baltimore Sun (editorial), 19, 20. 

Board of Supervisors, 10, 14, 16, 
101. 103. 152. 

Bushfield. the Birthplace of Judge 
Bushrod Washington, 20, 149. 

Binney. Judtre. 20. 24. 

Bushrod. Col. John, 21, 112. 

Blackburn. Col. Thomas. 22. 

Blackburn. Miss Anne. 22, 



Brougham, Lord (61, Tribute to 
Washington, 14, 32, 61, 62, 106, 
107, 112, 114. 

Brent, Captain, 40. 

jjacon's Rebellion, 40. 

British Parliament, 11, 19, 41, 109. 

Bray's Church, 42. 

Beaie, Gen. R. L. T., 11, 36, 114. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, 15. 

Boston Harbor, 15, 18, 42, 49, 57, 
112, 138. 

Boston Athenaeum, 16. 

Boston Tea Party, 20. 

Brown, David Paul, 23. 

Ball, Spencer, 46. 

uiagge, John, 46. 

Booth. William, 46. 

Ballantine, John, Jr., 46. 

Buokiier, Richard, 46, 51. 

tirockenbrough. Judge William, 46, 

Blackwell, John, 46. 

Bronaugh, William, 46. 

Berryman, John. 46. 

Broone, John, 46. 

Brent, W., 46. 

Ball. William, 46. 

Barnes, Thomas, 46. 

Blackwell, Joseph, 46. 

Beale, John, Jr., 46. 

Beale, Will, Jr., 46. 

Beale, Charles, 46. 

Beckwith, Jona.. 46. 

Belfield, John, 46. 

Banks, James, 47. 

Bancroft (historian), 47. 

Booker, James, 47. 

Belfield, Thomas, 47. 

Bland. .John, Jr., 47. 

Bernard, Wm.. 51. 

Butler, Beckwith. 51. 

P>ankhead, Wm., 51. 

Berryman, Vvm.. 51. 

Boston Port Bill, 56. 

Beverley, 57. 

Bar Association (Va.), 58. 

Byron, Lord, 61, 63, 64 (Tribute to 
Washington) . 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 61, 62. 64. 72. 

Barnes, Albert, 62. 

Braxton. Hon. Caperton, 65. 

Bismarck, Prince, 72. 

Benton, Hon. Thomas H. (by Roose- 
velt), 74. 
Bayard, 78. 

Blair, Francis Preston, 81. 

Blakey, Judge, 87. 

Blaine, James G., 89. 

Bailey, Miss Fannie, 89. 

Braddock. 90. 

Bland, Col. Theodorick, 93. 

Bernard, Governor, 96. 

Boyden, Miss, 124. 

P.avne, Mr., 124. 

Bedfordshire, 135. 

Bennett, Richard, Governor, 142. 

Bryce, Hon. James, 102. 

Birmingham News, 105. 

Bank of Westmoreland, 108. 

Bank of Kinsale, 108. 

Bank of Montross, 108, 151. 

Brady, Mrs. Joseph, 112. 

Burgesses of Westmoreland, 112. 

Brown, Goveror Thomas, 114. 

Bakers, 115. 

Beale, Judge Robert, 115. 

Beale, Rev. Dr. Frank B.. 115, 135. 

Baines, Alys B., 127, 128. 

Ball, Marv, 112. 

f'liantilly, residence of Richard 
Henry Lee, 9, 33, 41, 88, 151. 

Crutehfield. Mrs. Lee, 10. 

Critcher, Judge John, 12, 36, 87; 
(Address in Congress), 88, 89, 
115, 148, 152. 

Colonial Heroes Honored, 17. 

Critcher, Miss Catherine Carter, 12, 

Clinedinst, B. West, 12. 

Commodore Maury, Flagship of the 
Virginia Oyster Navy, 16. 

Caproni, P. P. & Bro., 13, 16. 

Carr, Dr. John Samuel, 18, 44. 

Cleveland, President, 28. 

Caroline, Queen, 32. 

Cromwell, 31, 75. 

Camillas, 38. 

Continental Congress (Resolution, 
"That these united Colonies are, 
and ought to be. free and inde- 
pendent States." introduced by R. 
H. Lee), 35, 42, 51, 93. 

Colchester, 42. 

Continental Army, 42. 

Colonial Beach Record, 43. 

Chilton, Thomas, 46, 51. 

Chilton, Wm.. 46. 


Cocke, Wm., 46. 

Carter, Eobert Wormeley, 46. 

Chilton, Charles, 46. 

Campbell, Gilbert, 46. 

Cox, Fleet, 51. 

Cambridge, 54. 

Carey, 57. 

Cavalier, 58. 

Churchman, 58. 

Congressional Record, 60. 

Castor and Pdllux, 61. 

China, 61. 

Choate, Rufus, 62. 

Curtis, Geo. Wm., 62. 

Channing, Wm, E.. 62. 

Custis, Geo. W. P., 62. 

Childe Harold, 63. 

Cincinnatus of the West, 64. 

Carter, Robert (Westmoreland Co.) 

Nomony, 71. 
Caesar, 72, 78. 
Cicero, 78, 88, 91. 

Chesney, Col., 73. 

Congressional Globe, 87. 

Chilton, W. B., 88. 

Cornwallis, 94. 

Carter, Chas. (Shirley), 96. 

Cavalia. 113. 

Cople, 135. 

Cornwall, 135, 150, 153. 

Curry, Dr. J. L. M., 103. 

Craft, President John, 106. 

Company Rolls and Rosters. 108. 

Cox, S'. Downing, 112. 

Crahhe, Walter R., 112. 

Committee of Safety, 42, 112. 

Campbell, Rev. Archibald, 114. 

Campbell, Thomas, 114. 

Campbell, Miss, 114. 

Claybrook, Col. Richard, 115 

Cox, 115. 

Colonial Beach, 118. 

Colonial Beach Company, 118. 

Colonial Beach Real Estate Com- 
pany (Incorporated), 118. 

Classic STiore, 118. 

Colonial Beach and Pope's Creek 
Steamboat Company, ITS. 

Steamboat Company, 118. 

Chaucer, 135. 

Clay, Henry. 142. 

Cole, Mr., 142. 

Charlotte Corday, 147. 

Cinderella's Slipper, ny. 

Corbins, 149. 
Cason, Robert B., 149. 
Cabin Point, 150. 
Calhoun, W. H., 150. 
Cole's Point, 150. 
Cole, Richard, 150. 
uhandler, 150. 
Carter, Councillor, 151. 
Chinn, Dr. Walter N., 151. 
Chatham, 151. 
The Cottage, 151. 
Claymont, 151. 
Campbellton, 152. 
Cedar Hill, 152. 

"Colonial Families of the Southern 
States of America," 152. 


Dunmore, Lord, 15, 17, 18, 41, 112. 
Declaration of Independence, 15, 17, 

32, 33, 19, 41, 88, 90, 93, 138. 
Dido, 38. 

Dumfries, 42. 

Dade Townshend, 46. 

Dickson, John, 46. 

Douglas, Thomas, 47. 

Davenport, James, 51, 54. 

Daniel, Senator John W., 59, 60, 

Daniel, Senator John W., Oration 
on Lee, 81, 82. 

Depew, Chauncey M., 62. 

Don Juan, 64. 

Denny, Dr., 66. 

Dade, Langhorn, 67, 68. 

Debates in Virginia Convention (29- 
30), 71. 

Deed and Will Book (Westmore- 
land), 71. 

Davis, President JefTerson, 76, 129. 

Do LaMorinicre, Rev. E. C. (Ad- 
dress at Mobile), 77. 

Dan Voorhees, 89. 

Dickinson, 91. 

Deane, Mr., 90. 

De Tocqueville, Alexis, 102. 

"Deserted Village" (Goldsmith), 

Davises, 115. 

Discovery, 119. 

Diggps, Ed., 142. 

Dos Passos, Hon. John R.. 148, 149. 

Dade, Major Albert G., 150. 



Ellyson, J. Taylor, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, 16, 17. 

Ellyson, Mrs. J. Taylor, President 
of Association for Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities, 16, 17. 

Edraondson, John Jr., 46. 

Edmondson, James, 47. 

Edniondson, John, 47. 

Emerson, James, 47. 

Eustice, Hancock, 47. 

Early, General, 83, 86. 

Eskridge, Colonel Geo., 112, 148. 

Edmonds, Richard H., Editor Man- 
ufactrer's Record, 120, 145. 

Egerton, Miss, 124. 

Elliotts, 149. 

Exeter, 152. 


Forbes, Chas S., 12. 

Flood, Wm., 46. 

fiairiaxes, 42. 

Francks Henry, 47. 

Fiske, John (Historian), 47. 

Freeman, John (Historian), 32, 71 
74 . 

Frenchman, 58. 

Frederick, 72. 

Forbes, Gordon F., 148. 

Fauntleroys, 151. 

Fairfax, Wm., 151. 

Fairfax, Eleanor Griffith, 129. 

Fisher, Mrs. Emily Steelman, 15, 

Featherstone, Richard, 40. 

Fauntleroy, Moore, 46. 
Foushee, Francis, 46. 
Fisher, Ebenezer, 47. 
Fox, Joseph, 51. 
Fitzhugh, Daniel. 51. 
Fitzhugh, John, 67,. 68. 
Fisher, Thomas, 51. 
Faneuil Hall, 55. 
Fairfax County, 57, 64. 
j^orus, 62. 

federal Republican, 95. 
Franklin, Dr., 96. 

Farmer's Bulletin (Virginia Agri- 
cultural Department). 118. 
Flanders of the South, 119. 
Folk, Governor, 132. 

Fifth Maryland Regiment (wreath 

on Lee's Monument), 146. 
Forrest, General, 147. 
Flemer, John A., 152. 


Grand Assembly, Act July, 1653, 
creating Westmoreland Co., 9, 

General Assembly, 11. 

Garnett, Gen. Thomas Stuart, 11, 
16, 19, 115. 

Garnett, Dr. Algernon S., 15, 19, 

Garnett, Coi. Henry T., 11, 140, 141, 

Garnett, Major John, 115. 

Gross, Estella, 11. 

Gatewood, Mrs. Nannie C, 12. 

Gaddess Bros. Company, 12. 

General Lafayette Chapter D. A. R., 
15, 18. 

Grasmere, 31. 

Grayson, Wm., 46. 

Grant, Peter, 46. 

Green, J. R.. 47. 

Gladstone, 61, 102 (Life of, by Dr. 

J. L. M. curry), 103. 
Guizot. M.. 61. 
Grant, Gen., 78, 129. 
Gordon, General, 83. 
Grayson, Mr., 93. 
Green, Gen. 94. 
(4('rard, Monsieur, 97. 
Guihord, 94. 

Gordon, Armistead C. (poet), 109. 
Gibson, Bishop Robert A., 111. 
Godspeed, 119. 
Garden of .America, 119. 
Gresham, Miss Beulah, 123. 
Gresham, Miss Genevieve, 123. 
Greenbrier Independent, 128. 
Grigsby. Hugh Blair, 135. 
Gower.' 135. 
Gilmore, 135. 
God's Acre, 141. 
Grand Association, 142. 
Glebe (om), 150. 
Griffith, David H., 152. 


Harris, Mrs. C. W., 10. 
Harding, 11. 


Hunter, Maj. R. W., 11. 
Hunter, Taliaferro, 13. 
Historical Events Commemorated 

(Historical Address), IG. 
Hathaway, Walter E. (Historical 

Address) 17, 18. 
Hopkinson, Judge, 20, 25. 
Holt, Justice, 23, 25, 32. 
Homer, 16, 33, 37, 38, 79, 92. 
Hungerford, John P., 36, 114. 
Hector, 38. 
Hodges, Richard, 47. 
Hoar, Senator George F. (Address 

at uid Point), 48, 54, 55, 58, 59, 

88, 89, 149. 
Hutt, M. L., Clerk, 54. 
Henry, Patrick, 55, 60, 92, 114. 
Hampton, 58. 
Homestead, Hot Springs, Va. 

(American Bar and Virginia Bar 

Associations), 65. 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 67. 
Hill, Senator Benjamin H., 72. 
Holy Grail, 74. 
Hooker, General, 74. 
Hampden, John, 75. 
Hope, Capt. James Barron (Memo- 
riae Sacium ) , 80. 
Hill, Gen. A. P., 83. 
Harowiek, S. B., 89, 
iiouse of Burgesses, 56, 90, 91, 93. 
ilerodotus, 92. 
Howe's History of Virginia, 14, 66, 

90, 97. 
Highway Commission, 103. 
Homes, Handsome and High Schools, 

House of Commons, 106. 
Hubbard, Hon. Wm. P., 112. 
Hubbard. Russell, 112. 
Hutt, William, 115. 
Hutt. J. Warren. 115. 
Hand Book of Virginia, 116, 117. 

"Hail! Westmoreland'' (poem), 

Hale, Rev. Edward Everett, 133. 
Hungerford. Miss M. E., 136, 137, 

138, 140, 141, 142. 
Hungerford, John W., 140, 152. 
Henning's Statutes, 142. 
Harvey^ 140. 
Hungerfords, 141. 
Hominy Hall, 148 

Hungerford, Philip Contee, 152. 
Hardy, Stella Pickett, 152. 

Irving, 65, 107. 

Ingleside (Washington Academy), 


Jennings, Edmond, London, Eng 
land, 11. 

-lellriis, xi. chard, 47. 

Jett, Thomas, 47. 

JcliVrson, President Thos., 29, 55. 
60, 92, 95, 96. 

Jamestown, 55, 58, 119. 

Japanese Merchant, 67. 

Jackson, Stonewall, 72, 73, 74, 76. 
82. 83, 152. 

Johnston, Albert Sidney, 74. 

"Joyous Guard," 85. 

Johnson, Dr., 107. 

Jack, Capt, J. F., 118. 

Jetts, 141. 

Joan of Arc, 147. 

Jones, Thomas. 46. 
■ ' Charles C, 152. 

Judge of the Court — Report of Por- 
traits and Tablets, 11, 12. 


Keene, James R., 12. 
Kenner, Rodham, 46. 
Kenner, Winder S., 46. 
Kendel, Woffendel, 51. 
King Arthur, 57. 
Koiner, *jreo. W., 117. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 132. 
King Copsico, 150. 
King John, 135, 
Ki: sale. 149. 

Logan, Thomas, 47. 

Lee, Richard Henry, 9, 12, 14, 15, 
17, 18, 19, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 42, 
46, 48, 51, 55, 60; (against the 
slave trade), 70, 88; (sketch of), 
90, 91, 96, 138, 148, 151, 11, 19; 
(who dared to propose the resolu- 
tion, "That these colonies are and 
by right ougrht to be free and in- 
dependent States"), 32. 



Lee, Life of, 70. 

Lee, Gen. Henry, 9, 12, 32, 33, 36, 

61. 62, 75, 88; (sketch of), 93, 

Lee, Col. R. E., Jr., 11. 
Lee, Thomas Ludwell, 19, 41, 46, 

Lee, Thomas, Gov., 9, 32, 35. 
Lee, Wm., 12, 35, 36, 46, 96. 
Lee, Francis., 9. 
Lee, Artnur, 9, 12, 19, 32, 36, 88; 

(sketch of), 96. 
Lee, Wm. H., 12. 
Lee, Blair, 13. 
Lee, John F., 13. 
Lee, Chas., 36, 88. 
Lee, Capt. John, 40. 
Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 12, 19, 32, 

36, 46; (sketch of), 93. 
Lee, Matilda, of Stratford, 43. 
Lee, Richard, 19, 46, 50, 51. 
Lee, John, Jr., 46. 
Lee, Governor Fitzhugh, 67. 
Lee, Philip Ludwell, 95, 148. 
Lee, Gen. R. E., 11, 12, 16, 19, 29, 
32, 33, 36. 

Life of, by Fitzhugh Lee, 69. 

Memoirs by Long, 69, 70. 

Anti-Slavery sentiments of, 69. 

Disunion an aggravation, 69. 

Denies Constitutionality of Seces- 
sion, 70. 

Denies ethical right of coercion, 

His sorrow at disunion, 70. 

Beautiful tributes to, 72, 73, 75, 
79, 80, 109, 116, 124, 147, 151. 

Devotes his sword to bis native 
State, 82. 

Under which flag, 81. 

Relations between him and his 
men, 82. 

Meditations of duty, 82. 

The fate of war, 82. 

President Washington College, 83. 

Did he save his country? 83. 
Lee Birthplace Memorial Committee 
of the Va. State Camp, Patri- 
otic Order Sons of America, 

Resolutions to buy Stratford, 111, 
Ijee in bronze, 125. 

The last days of, 83. 

Lee to the rear, 129, 130, 131. 

i^ee, Philip Ludwell, 148. 

Lee, Matilda, 148. 

Lee, Flora, 148. 

Lee, "Squire" Henry, 150, 151. 

l^ee Hall, 150, 151. 

Lee, Gen. W. H. F., 150. 

Lee, George Fairfax, 151. 

Lee, George, 151. 

Lee, Dr. Edmond Jennings, 151. 

Lee, Gen. G. W. Custis, 12, 69. 

Lee, Major Henry, Consul to Al- 
giers, 18, 43. 

Ajcxington, 15. 

Lovell, Robert, 46. 

Lane, Joseph, 46. 

Lodge, Senator Henry Cabot (Ad- 
dress in U. S. Congress on Sena- 
tor Daniel), 59, 60, 62. 

Lewis, Col. Wm., 66. 

Lewis, Mrs. Wm., 66. 

Lpwi«, Judge Geo. W., 115, 152. 

Lancaster (steamer), 124. 

Latan^ Miss Janet, 124. 

l^eedstown, 14, 15, 19, 33, 124, 138, 
139, 140. 

Southern Cradle of American Inde- 
pendence, 18, 33, 40, 41, 42. 

Leeds Church, 33, 40, 42. 

Lafayette, 9. 

Lane, Jo., 4o. 

jjawler, Col., i'S. 

Long, Prof. George (Tribute to Gen. 
T^e), 78. 

Lossing, Hon. Benson J. (Life of 
Washington and Pictorial Field 
Book of the Revolution), 66. 


Monroe, President, 9, 11, 19, 31, 36; 

(opposed to slavery), 71, 88, 117, 

152, 153. 
Monroe's Creek, his birthplace, 9, 

Montross County Seat, 10, 14, 16. 

Tablets unveiled commemorating 
Historical events at, 10, 16. 

Tablets unveiled honoring Colo- 
nial Herot-s, 10, 11, 17. 
McKim, Rev. Dr. R. H., 10, 13, 14. 

29; (Historical Address), 35, 74, 

Mayo, Hon. Wm., 10. 13, 14, 16, 114, 




Murphy, Airs. G. W., President. U. 

D. C, 10. 
Morris. Mrs. Roberta Garnett, 11. 
Mayo, P. H., 11, 12. 
Montague, Mrs. Harreotte, 12. 
Marylanu. Delaware & Va. Railway 

Co., 13. 
Mecklenburg Resolutions (N. C), 

15, 17, 33. 
Massachusetts Bay, 15. 
.viarshall. Chief Justice, 16, 23, 2G, 

31, 5G, GO, G2, G4, 152. 
Maryland, 20; (f'ifth Regiment), 

Marshall, Col. Thomas, 16, 31. 
Mason, John Y., Secretary Navy, 18, 

43, 44. 
Madison, President, 19, 31; (anti- 
slavery sentiments), 60, 71, 75, 

88; (Life of, by Hunt), 71. 11. 
"Mother of Presidents," 20, 60, 119. 
Mansfield, Lord, 23, 25. 
Mt. Vernon, 2G, 27, 28, 97. 
Meade, Bishop, 34, 42, 101, 114, 151. 
Mason, Capt. Geo., 40. 
Maxwell, Wm., 43, 47. 
Mitchell, Richard, 46. 
Murdock, Joseph, 46. 
Monroe, Spence, 46. 
Moxley, Alvin, 46. 
Monroe, John, 46. 
McCarty, Daniel, 46, 51. 
Meriwether, Reuben, 46. 
Mountjoy, Edw., 46. 
Mountjoy, Thomas, 46. 
Mountjoy, John, 46. 
Mountjoy, Wm. J., 46. 
Mortimer, Chas., 46. 
Mason, Thompson, 46. 
^viontague, A., 47. 
Miiliken, Jo., 47. 
Mcllwaine, Dr. H. R. (Librarian Va. 

State), 50, 51, 52, 54. 
Middleton, Benedict, 51. 
Middleton, John, 51. 
Martin. John, 51. 
Morgan's Riflemen, 55. 
Massachusetts, 15, 51, 55, 56, 61, 88. 
Mayflower, 55. 
Mason, George, 57, 60, 63. 
Macaulay's Lays, 61. 
Morris, Robert, 64. 
Mercer, John F., "64. 
,xary, the mother of Washington, 


Manoorough, 72, 73^ 74, 78. ■ ' ' 

McGuire, Dr. Hunter, 73. 

Montrose, 75, 152. 

Alore (The), MacCallum, 75, 135. 

^»iacgregor, 76. 

Mars, The Field of, 77. •■' 

Micou, James Roy, 87. - 

Micou, Prof. James Roy, Jr., 87. 

Marion, General, 94. 

Memoirs of a Southern Campaign by 

General H. Lee, 95. 
Monuments at Wakefield (U. S.)- 

and at Montross (C. S.), 108, 123. 
Mayo, Wat Tyler, ^12. 
Mayo, Judge Robert, 114. 
Mayo, Col. Joseph, 114. 
Mayo, Col. Robert M., 114. 
Manufacturer's Record, 116, 120, 

Murpliy, 115. 

Mann, liovernor, 116, 121, 122. 
Mason, Hon. George (Prest.), 118. 
Mason, Miss Dora, 123. 
"Message from Westmoreland" 

(poem), 127, 128. 
Mann, Dr. George C, 153. 
Moreland, 135. 

iviastins, 141. ■ ., . 

Machoactoke (Machodoc), 142,; 150'..' 
Murphys, 149. .i};'. ■ 

Murphy, Geo. W., 151. ^:r-.. 

Maryes, 151. ,.; : 

Mastin, John T., 152. 
Mars^hall, Rev. Wm., 152. 
McClellan, Gen. Geo. B., 152. 


Northumberland, the older colony, 

9, 116. 
Northern Neck News, newspaper at 

Warsaw, Va., 9, 10, 15, 153. 
Niles Register, 26. 
Newton, Hon. Willoughby, 36, 113, 

115, 150. 
Norseman, 58. 

Newton, Bishop John B., 113, 150. 
Newton, Capt. Wm., 115. 
Newton, John, 46. 
Nelson, William, 51. •? .:.■-,. 

Niagara, 55. ..'•.■ 

Nomini Hall, 33. , ',<. ■: 

Napoleon, 62, 63; (ode to), 72;- (kit 

Waterloo), 107. 
New Market, 109. 



Netherlands of America, 119. 
isanzaticoea, 137. 
i\ecostin's Towne, 142. 
A'eio York Sun, 143. 
News-Leader, 146. 
Nomony Hall, 151. 
Ninde, J. C, 153. 


Owen, Evan, 118. 
Old Mortality, 29. 
Orr, John, 47. 
CM a Glebe, 150. 

Potomac, 9. 

Pope's Creek, 9. 

. atriotic Sons of America, 10. 

1-itt, Wm., Lord Chatham, 11. 

I'eale, 12. 

Parker, Judge Richard (Circuit 
Court), 12, 15,33, 36,46. 

Polk, President, 18. 

Pickering, Mr., 23. 

Parker, Judge Richard E. (Supreme 
( va.) Court), 36. 

Pepoon, Willis, 11, 12. 

Portraits unveiled, 17. 

Pericles, 33. 

Patterson, Robert, the old Scotch- 
man who spent his lite restoring 
the grave stones of the Covenan- 
ters, 29. 

Pope's Creek, 33, 38, 138. 

Pallas, 38. 

Passassack (King Rappahannocks) , 

Pierce, Joseph, 46, 51. 
fierce, William, 46, 51. 
Plymouth, 55. 
Puritan, 58. 
Plato, 78. 
Perrie, Miss, 88. 
Pendleton. 91, 92. 
Pickens, Col., 94. 
Pyle, Col., 94. 
lension Board, 110. 
Patriotic Order Sons of America, 

Payne, Bishop, 113. 
Proctor, Secretary, 129. 
Pratt, Thomas, 138. 
Pawtomake (Potomac), 142. 

Pendleton, Edmund (News-Leaderq, 

Peckatone, 149. 
Parker. Gen. Alexander, 149. 
Payne's Point, 152. 
PicKett, George, 152. 
nokett. Wm., 152. 
PicKett, Mary Ann, 152. 
Pickett, Gen. Geo. E., 152. 
r-otomac & Rappahannock Telephone 

Company, 152. 
Pomeroy. Bushrod Washington, 16, 


Rives, Wm. Cabell (Prest. Va. His- 
torical Society), 18, 43. 
Round Hill, 33. 
Kobinson, Will, 46. 
Rush, Jeremiah, 46. 
Rust, Peter, 46. 
Roane, W., 47. ' 
Kansdell, Edward, 46. 
Richards, John, 47. 
Roane, Thomas, 47.^ 
Robinson, Max, 47. 
Rust, Samuel, 51. 
Ritchie, 57. 
Randolph, 57, 60. 
Roundhead, 58. 

Roosevelt. President, 74, 78, 109. 
Roman Vestal, 72. 
Ryan, Father (Sword of Lee), 86. 
Rappahannock Times, 87. 
Rasselas, King of Abvssinia, 107. 
Roads, Good, 101, 104"^, 105. 
Roads, Sand Clay System, 103. 
Rochester, Col. Nathaniel, 112. 
Rochester, John, 112. 
Robertson, 114. 
Rappahannocks, 137. 
Roses, 149. 
Riverside, 152. 
Koxbury, 152. 
Ritchie! Thomas (Father), 87. 


Stratford, Family Seat of the Lees, 
9, 11, 14. 17, 30. 31, 32, 34, 41, 
88, 90. 108, 148. 

Stuart, 11. 

Stuart, Dr. R. H., 12, 14, 124, 151. 

Stuart, Mrs. R. H., 14, 124. 


S't. John's, Tappahannock, 14. 
Stamp Act (1705), 15, 18, 33, 40, 

41, 43. 
Stamp Act — Virginia first of the 
Colonies to memorialize King in 
opposition, 47. 
"The only one to address to the 
House of Commons a remon- 
strance (Bancroft), 47. 

Stamp Act — formal defiance came 
first from Va. (John Fiske), 

Stamp Act — the Assembly of Vir- 
ginia first to demand repeal (J. 
R. Green), 18, 19, 47. 
Virginia rang the alarm bell for 
the continent (Bancroft), 47. 

Society of Virginia Antiquities, 19. 

Story, Judge, 20, 23, 31. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 29. 

Smith, Capt. John, 40. 

Sydnor, William, 46. 

Selden, Sam, 46. 

fcanford, Edward, 46, 51. 

Smith, John, Jr., 46. 

Sanford, James, 46. 

Smith, W., 46. 

Smith, Meriwether, 47. 

Suggett, John, 47. 

S'uggett, Edgcomb, 47. 

Smith, Rev. Thomas (Moderator), 
48, 51, 52, 112, 150. 

Smith, Philip, 51. 

Steptoe, George, 51. 

Sparks, Jared, 62. 

Spaniard, 58. 

Scylla, 63. 

Socrates, 72. 

Sidney, 78. 

ucott. General, 81. 

S'outhworth, Harrison, 87. 

Sigourney, Midsliipman, 89, 90, 149. 

Stuart, 114. 

Susan Constant, 119. 

Switzerland of America, 119. 

Smith. Capt. John, 120. 

Sale. Ritchie, 123. 

Steamer Caroline, 123. 

Shakespeare, 135. 

Spencer, Col. Nicholas. 135. , 

Swanson, Governor, 136. 

Shultice, Dr., 147. 

Sandy Point, 148. 

Steptoe. Col. James, 148. 

Springfield, 149. 

Spring <jrrove, 149. 

Smiths, 149. 

State Highway Commission, 103. 

Sand Clay System, 103. 

Smith, Dr. John Augustine, 150. 

Trumbull, Col. John (Washington's 

portrait), 9. 
Tablets unveiled, 17, 19. 
Times-Dispatch, Richmond, Va., 17, 

104; Roads (the great reform), 

Taylor, C. H. J., Minister to Liberia, 

The Virffinia Historical Register and 

Literary Advertiser, 43, 47. 
Turberville, George, 46, 51. 
Tibbs, Daniel, 46, 51. 
Thornton, Francis, Jr., 46. 
Town of Richmond, 51. 
Turberville, John, 51. 
a.roy, 79. 
Thompson, 88. 
Talleyrand, 61. 

The Writings of Washington (Mar- 
shall), 64. 
Xarlton 66, 94. 

I aft party in the Philippines, 67. 
Tappahannock, 87, 141. 
Taxation — low rate, 127. 
Thackeray, 109, 142. 
Tyler, Rev. John Poyntz (Arch 

Deacon of Virginia), 111, 
Tyler, Wat. H., 112. 
lyler, Mrs. Julia Hubbard, 112. 
Tayloe, 115. 

Tidewater Democrat, 124. 
Thompson, John R., 131. 
Thornton, Francis, 138, 
Taylors, 141, 152. 
Turners, 141. 
Tvler, Presiuent, 147. 
Temple, 148. 
Turbervilles, 149. 
Taliaferros, 149. 
Tyler, Dr. Wat. H., 149. 
Twiford, 152. 


bis water. 31. 
ITpshaw, John, 46, 57. 


Upshaw, Jamea, 47, 57. 
University of Virginia, 29. 
Uibanna, 97. 

■: ^. ■ V. 

Vanderlyn, 11. 

"Virginia first and Lee" (Woraley, 

Philip Stanhope), 16, 79. 
Virginia, Mother of Presidents, 119. 
Virgil, 38. 

Virginia Historical Society, 43, 66. 
Virgmia Historical Register, 147. 
Virginia's Attitude Towards Slavery 

and Secession (Munford), 64, 65, 
■ 69, 70, 71. 

Virginia Bar Association, 59, 66. 
Von Moltke, 72, 73. 
A irginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 

Vane, Sir Harry. 7^. 
Voorhees, Senator Daniel, 89. 
Venice of America, 119. 
Van Dyke, Dr. Henry, 119. 
Valentine (sculptor), 85. 
Van Buren, President, 141. 
The Virginians (Thackeray), 142. 
Virginia — "The roses nowhere so 

white as in Virginia," 153. 
"Virginia as she was and as she is," 



Westmoreland, "The Athens of Vir- 
ginia," 9, 13, 33. 

From the older colony of North- 
' • umberland (1653), 9. 

The plant bed of an ancient civili- 
zation is still the cradle of a 

Her efficient Board of Supervisors, 

The sand clay system of good 
roads, 102. 

With what nature has done, she 
stands for civic improvement 
and educational advancement 
and the betterment of all condi- 
tions, 106. 

With diversified farm products; 
thriving' iridustries and plants, 
she points to her excellent finan- 
cial conditions and low rate of 
taxation, 108. 

The passing of old homes into new 
hands, 148. 

Stratford to be dedicated to Vir- 

ginia as a memorial of the Lees ; 
old Yeocomico Church to be re- 
nabilitated under control of the 
Diocesan Board of Trustees, 111. 

What the moat distinguished and 
higher authorities say of West- 
moreland, 116. 

What pilgrims and shriners and 
poets say of Westmoreland, 123. 

STie is a classic spot, and nature 
has lavished her gifts, yet her 
people must feel after all that 
"honest blood is loyal blood, and 
manhood is the only patent of 
nobility." Westmoreland and 
Virginia cannot be greatest un- 
less their men and women are 
good and honest, and the men 
manly," 132. 
Westmoreland Camp, C. V., 10, 108. 
Westmoreland Association, 15, 18, 

Westmoreland Besolutions, 15, 17, 
18, 42, 43: (full text), 44, 48. 
Westmoreland Committee of Safety, 
15, 17, 18; (fiery resolutions, 
1775), 18, 51; (fiery resolu- 
tions, 1774), 18, 48, 49, 50, 51, 
52, 53, 54; (fiery resolutions, 
1775), Lord Dunmore seizing 
powder at Williamsburg, Va. 
Westmoreland Enquirer and Colonial 
Beach Record (newspaper), 108, 
152, 153. 
Westmoreland Historical Associa- 
tion, 153. 
Washington, General George, 9, 11, 
12, 16, 19. 22, 31, 32. 33, 36, 
39, 42, 56, 60, 109, 112, 116. 
117, 124, 142, 

Houdon statue of, 13. 

Family Bible of, 9. 

Fac simile of the record of his 
birth, 9. 

The writings of (Marshall), 64. 

Anti-slaverv sentiments of, 64, 72, 
73, 74, 75, 79, 84. 

The Life of (Irving), 64. 
Washington, Lawrence, 9, 13, 20; 

(Historical Address), 47. 
Washington, Bushrod, 9, 11, 13, 19, 
20, 23, 31, 36. 

First President Anierican Coloni- 
zation Society, 71. 

(Sketch), 97, 112, 149. 



Washington and Lee Chapter U. D. 

C, 10, 110. 
Washington, Miss Lila, 11. 
Washington, Lloyd, 13, 115. 
Washington, Richard B., 13. 
Washington, Col. John Augustine, 

20, 21. 46, 51, 57, 150. 
Washington, Capt. John, 40. 
Washington, Samuel, 46. 
Washington, Charles, 46 
Washington, Laur., 47. 
Washington and Lee (The Castor 
and Pollux — the two twin stars), 
Washington and Lee — '"These two 
shall ride immortal" (James Bar- 
ron Hope, Capt.), 80. 
Washington, Col. R. J., 115, 150, 

Washington, Wm. Augustine, 124. 
Washington, Augustine, 124. 
\^ashington, John. 136, 138. 
Washington. Samuel, 138. 
Washington, Lawrence, 138. 
Washington, Mrs. Lawrence (first 

matrc^ of Mt. Vernon). 151. 
Washington, Robert. 138. 
Washington, John T.. 138. 
Washington. Henry T., 138. 
Washington, J. Ta'yloe. 140. 
Washington, Mary. 140. 
Washington, John A., 149. 
Washington, Law., Sr., 152. 
Washington, Law.. Jr.. 152. 
Wheelwright. Joseph Christopher, 

13. 100. 115. 
Wheelwright. J. H.. 13. 113. 
Wheelwright, Dr., F. D., 152. 
Wakefield, birthplace of Washing- 
ton, 0, 14. 30. 33, 34, 88, 108, 123. 
124, 152. 
Warsaw. 14. 

Wilson, John E.. 124, 152. 
Wilson. Mrs. John E.. 14. 124. 
Wilson. Miss Etta. 14, 124. 
Wilkins. Bush. 16. 
Writrht. T. R. B.. 16. 17, 29. 
Wright. Mrs. T. R. B., 17, 123. 
X^'riffht, Miss Jeannette, 123. 
Wrieht, Miss Charlotte, 123. 
Williamsburg, powder in magazine 

nt. 17. 18.' 
Wilson, James, 21. 23. 
William and Mary College. 21. 
Windermere, 31. 

Wirt. William, Attorney General I'. 
S., 32. 152. 

Wirt, Dabney Carr, 152. 

Wirtland, 152, 

Wirt, Dr. William, 152. 

Wirt, William D.. 152. 

Wolseley, Viscount Lord, 32, 72, 73, 

Warren, 42. 

Warminster, 42. 

Willis, Lewis, 46. 

Watts, John, 46. 

Weeks, Charles, 46. 

Williams, John, 46. 

Waring, Francis, 46. 

Woodcock, John S., 46. 

Webb, James, Jr., 47. 

Weeks, Benjamin, 51. 

Winchester, 55. 

Watkins. 57. 

Wythe, 60. 

We?ins, Rev. C. L., 65, 66, 63. 

West Augusta. 65, 66. 

Waddill. Joseph' A., 66. 

Wilson, Woodrow (son of Virginia), 
Governor New Jersey, 62. 

Willis, Col. Lewis, 68! 

Weems' Life of Washington, 68. 

Wellington. 72, 73, 74, 78, 106. 

Whittier. Gen. Chas. A., 75. 

William of Orange, 75. 

Worseley. Philip Stanhope (poem to 
General Lee — "Virginia first and 
Lee"), 78. 
Wright, Judge Selden S., 87. 
Whiskey Insurrection, 95. 
West Indies, 95. 
Ward, Channing M., 107. 
Wreath on Lee's Monument, 146. 
Waterview, 148. 

Williams. Chas.. Ins. Co., 152, 153. 
Walnut Hill, 152. 
Warrington, Rachel, 142. 
\\ Oman — -then and now, 146, 147, 
V.'ayne, General, 149. 
Walnut Farm. 149. 
Woodyard. 149. 
Wilton, 149. 

Wctheiill. Ira Co.-triffht. 149. 
Waterloo Church, 110. 
Westminster Abbev, 113. 
Walker. W. W. 115, 151. 


YorKtown, 15, 95. 

Young, Smith, 47. 

Yeocomico River. 89. 

Yeocomico Church, 111, 112. 114. 


002 144 867 9